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Copper entrapment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... contamination occurring in the casting process that became concentrated in the recycled skimmings. It was recommended that future material specifications for skimmings and for externally obtained scrap copper include a trace analysis for tellurium. Cupronickel Embrittlement Segregations Tellurium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 0.38 0.32 – 0.38 Silicon 0.240 0.15 – 0.30 Manganese 0.75 0.60 – 1.00 Chromium 0.94 0.75 – 1.00 Molybdenum 0.15 0.15 – 0.25 Nickel 0.15 … Phosphorus 0.008 0.035 max Sulfur 0.023 0.040 max Vanadium 0.004 … Copper 0.17 … Aluminum 0.018 … The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to propagation in hydrogen at very high rates (0.25 cm, or 0.1 in., or more per hour) or is simply a characteristic of this material. Retaining rings are used in electrical generators to resist the centrifugal forces of the copper windings and are among the most highly stressed components in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... producing longitudinal and transverse sections. Each direction shows different information. (a) Medium-carbon steel plate. Nital etch. Transverse and (b) longitudinal sections. (c) Copper water pipe. Ferric chloride etch. Transverse and (d) longitudinal sections The practices that should be used when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... grade 70 requirements (a) Carbon 0.29 0.33 (max) Manganese 0.82 0.90 (max) Phosphorous 0.019 0.035 (max) Sulfur 0.021 0.040 (max) Silicon 0.21 0.015–0.35 Nickel 0.13 NR Chromium 0.17 NR Molybdenum 0.04 NR Copper 0.10 NR (a) NR, no requirement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... sectioned from the fractured end of each failed wire rod for optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. These samples were individually mounted in electrically conductive copper-containing resin and polished by conventional metallographic techniques. The polished samples were etched in 2% nital...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fatigue fracture misalignment tungsten alloy steel fatigue cracking optical microscopy hardness T1 tungsten high-speed steel UNS T12001 Copper-based bearing alloys The ball bearing assembly consisted of an inner race, an outer race, a cage, and balls. This bearing supported the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chemistry of the structural carbon steel ASTM A36 and the high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA) ASTM A572. The A36 structural steel has chemical requirements for carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and when specified, copper, while HSLA A572 has requirements for carbon, manganese, phosphorus...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM), Zeiss Model EVO ® MA 10, to assess the mode and specific features of rupture. Metallographic specimens were sectioned from coil samples both at and in close vicinity to the crack. The longitudinal transverse sections were mounted in conducting copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be mounted using a hard mounting material or it can be plated electrolytically or using electroless solutions before being mounted. In general, electroless plating using nickel, copper, iron, or chromium is the preferred method, because bonding is superior, with less tendency for the plating to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... studies into the cause of season cracking, Moore, Beckinsale, and Mallinson concluded in their 1921 paper, “The Season Cracking of Brass and Other Copper Alloys,” that “some agency additional to the presence of initial (residual) stress appears to be necessary for the development of season-cracks” ( Ref 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... precipitation of internal gaseous hydrogen Heavy steel sections Induced by high-temperature exposure followed by rapid cooling Hydrogen attack Steels subject to combined high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen. Also affects copper Irreversible chemical reactions of hydrogen with matrix or alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is designed to make very precise cuts. They are smaller in size than the usual laboratory abrasive cutoff saw and use much smaller blades, typically from 7.6 to 20.3 cm (3 to 8 in.) in diameter. These blades can be of the nonconsumable type, made of copper-base alloys with diamond or cubic boron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... copper alloy substrate, insulating oxide debris is formed and the electrical conductivity is decayed. The durability of the electrical contact resistance depends on the nature of the coating (noble versus nonnoble) and can be formalized using decreasing power-law functions of the sliding amplitude ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... tracks) Common in cyclic loading Due to entrapped particulate matter It should also be clear from examination of the information in this article that not all features created by a given cause for failure are necessarily present on a given fracture surface. For example, beach marks (at low...