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Copper contamination

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... primarily copper sulfide, with zinc and aluminum sulfides while the green deposit was revealed to be copper chloride. The combination of sulfide and chloride attack on the tubes was concluded to have resulted in the failure. Injection of ferrous sulfate upstream of the condenser which could aid the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about ten years serving a coal pulverizer in Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake passed through the inner surfaces of the copper tubing and was cooling the hot oil that surrounded the outer diametral...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Copper tubes from the cooler assemblies of a large air-conditioning unit exhibited leakage upon installation of the unit. Sections from two leaking tubes and one nonleaking tube were subjected to pressure testing and microscopic examination. The cause of leaking was determined to be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for a contaminant to the internal environment of the cylinder or to some agent that may have contaminated the disc prior to installation. More extensive EDS analysis was subsequently performed. Copper, zinc and iron indications are the result of the base alloy composition. Some of the iron detected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... contamination occurring in the casting process that became concentrated in the recycled skimmings. It was recommended that future material specifications for skimmings and for externally obtained scrap copper include a trace analysis for tellurium. Cupronickel Embrittlement Segregations Tellurium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... dust from the tube surface, showed lead, silicon, aluminum, and calcium as the predominant contaminants, with lesser concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel, copper, and titanium. The fracture surface was enriched in iron ( Ref 1 ). Sporadic areas of iron-nickel and chromium-iron occurred throughout...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 0.025 0.040 max Sulfur 0.021 0.030 max Silicon 0.58 0.75 max Nickel 10.10 8.00 to 11.00 Chromium 18.30 18.00 to 20.00 Molybdenum 0.30 … Copper 0.28 … Iron Bal Bal Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Waterwall tube failure samples removed from a coal- and oil-fired boiler in service for 12 years exhibited localized underdeposit corrosion and hydrogen damage. EDS and XRD revealed that bulk internal deposits collected from the tubes contained metallic copper which can accelerate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... eye. Macrophotography showed that the attack was more severe at one edge of each pad, resulting in deeper grooving and a buildup of deposits, mostly silver sulfides. Microstructural analysis of a cross section indicated that the interface between the silver overlay and the substrate (beryllium copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... opportunities to improve operating processes and procedures related to the management of system integrity. Industry experience with corrosion-resistant alloys of steel, copper, and aluminum is reviewed. The article ends with a discussion on monitoring and preventing microbiologically influenced corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... crashed helicopter, and LME of a steel gear by a copper alloy from an overheated bearing. The case histories illustrate how LME and SMIE failures can be diagnosed and distinguished from other failure modes, and shed light on the underlying causes of failure and how they might be prevented. The application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the zinc-rich primer, and when welding was performed through spattered regions, LMIE cracks formed adjacent to the weld passes. Reference 24 reports HAZ cracking at butt welds in thin sheets of type 304L stainless steel when the weld area had been contaminated with copper particles. This...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... a multistory office building in 1975 failed, causing substantial water damage. There was no fire in the building. No evidence of tampering with the heads was detected. The chrome-plated copper cups ( Fig. 2 ) exhibited no discoloration, indentations, or scratches. Fig. 2 Separated copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... corroded away ( Fig. 1 ). The edges of the fins had a reddish copper color in them ( Fig. 2 ). The internal surfaces showed a directionality of corrosion typical of erosion due to the mechanical flow of the stream through the part. Fig. 1 Photographs of as-received part (units are in inches). ( a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... responsible for the hydrogen damage found in the rear wall tube section. Corrosive attack and hydrogen damage were aggravated by the copper present in the internal deposits due to galvanic effects. The remaining water circuit boiler tubing should be examined by nondestructive techniques for any evidence of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...×, 20 kV accelerating voltage. Courtesy of C. Wright, NASA Fig. 5 A backscattered electron image showing surface contamination of a failed copper bourdon tube in a pressure regulator allows for targeted chemical analysis of the contamination. 23×, 20 kV accelerating voltage. Courtesy of C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... vendor per ASTM A380, “Cleaning and Descaling Stainless Steel Parts, Equipment and Systems.” The pipe assemblies were required to be checked for proper passivation by in-house quality-control personnel per ASTM A380, “The Copper Sulfate Test” (section 7.2.5.3). No hardness or tensile specifications were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... ). Chemical analysis showed that the tubes were fabricated from copper alloy 270 (yellow brass, 65% Cu), and energy-dispersive analysis showed that only part of the nominal 35% Zn remained in the porous and brittle layer. Metal structure and composition are very important in dezincification. Brasses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... producing longitudinal and transverse sections. Each direction shows different information. (a) Medium-carbon steel plate. Nital etch. Transverse and (b) longitudinal sections. (c) Copper water pipe. Ferric chloride etch. Transverse and (d) longitudinal sections The practices that should be used when...