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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Hydrogen embrittlement is the brittleness affecting copper and copper alloys containing oxygen which develops during heat treatment at temperatures of about 400 deg C (752 deg F) and above in an atmosphere containing hydrogen. The phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement of copper and its...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract A residential subdivision near Tampa, FL was constructed in 1984 through 1985. Several sections of copper pipe were removed from one residence that had reported severe leaking. Visual examination revealed extensive pitting corrosion throughout the ID surfaces of the sample. Microscopic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Abstract A locomotive type boiler was fitted with a copper firebox of orthodox construction. Flanged tube- and firehole-plates were attached to a wrapper plate by means of copper rivets. Shortly after it was put into service the fireside heads of a number of rivets broke off at different parts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A 25 mm (1 in.) copper coupling had been uniformly degraded around most of the circumference of the bell and partially on the spigot end. One penetration finally occurred through the thinned area on the spigot end of the pipe. Investigation supported the conclusion that although...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... corrosion mechanism. The copper content remained consistent. Fig. 1 Views of a through-wall perforation of a chromium-plated α brass (70Cu-30Zn) tube removed from a potable water system due to dezincification. (a) Macroview of tube. (b) Inside diameter surface of the tube shown in (a), depicting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0060097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract An eddy current survey of the copper evaporator (chiller) tubes in an absorption air-conditioning unit revealed two tubes in the evaporator bundle with indications typical of longitudinal cracks. Significant necking down and grain distortion at the fracture surfaces was revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Eddy-current inspection was performed on a leaking absorber bundle in an absorption air-conditioning unit. The inspection revealed crack-like indications in approximately 50% of the tubes. The tube material was phosphorus-deoxidized copper. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A T-piece from a copper hot water system failed. Microscopic examination of a polished section revealed a main crack and branching transcrystalline cracks running from the outer surface of the pipe into the pipe wall. The crack appearance indicated disintegration by stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of five case histories on the failure of copper and steels as used in potable and non-potable water systems. The case histories cover a range of applications in which copper and steel products have been used. Copper and steel pipes are the two most commonly used materials in residential, commercial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract After about 17 years in service, copper alloy C27000 (yellow brass, 65% Cu) innercooler tubes in an air compressor began leaking cooling water, causing failure and requiring replacement. The tubes were 19 mm in diam and had a wall thickness of 1.3 mm (0.050 in.). The cooling water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract After 14 months of service, cracks were discovered in castings and bolts used to fasten together braces, posts, and other structural members of a cooling tower, where they were subjected to externally applied stresses. The castings were made of copper alloys C86200 and C86300...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Tubes in heat exchangers, made of copper alloy C44300 and used for cooling air failed after 5 to six years of service. Air passed over the shell-side surface of the tubes and was cooled by water flowing through the tubes. Water vapor in the air was condensed (pH 4.5) on the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about ten years serving a coal pulverizer in Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake passed through the inner surfaces of the copper tubing and was cooling the hot oil that surrounded the outer diametral...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Penetration by molten copper occurred in the economizer of a large water-tube boiler. A cross section through a weld and the crack in the tube revealed a crack was an intergranular fissure. Small fissures of the same type also extended from its flanks. The main fissure was filled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract In a copper hot water system, a bent pipe was soldered into a straight pipe with twice the diameter. The neighborhood of the soldered joint was covered with corrosion product predominantly blue-green in color, presumably carbonates. When these corrosion products were scratched off...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Following the fusing of one of the copper leads in the choke circuit of an electric welder, a piece of the affected lead was obtained for examination. The sample had large internal cavities and surface bulges. It is remarkable that a wire containing defects of the magnitude present...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Parts of 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel that had been forged at about 815 deg C (1500 deg F) were gas tungsten arc welded. During postweld inspection, cracks were found in the HAZs of the welds. Welding had been done using a copper fixture that contacted the steel in the area of the HAZ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Diode leads that were to be made from OFHC copper were instead made from copper with high oxygen content. The leads had a nickel underplating, a gold final plating, and were brazed to the diode package in a hydrogen atmosphere. After brazing, the leads became embrittled. SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A large number of electropolished copper parts showed evidence of discoloration (tinting) after electropolishing. Because these parts are used in a high-vacuum application, even trace amounts of organic materials would be problematic. Scanning electron microscopy of nondiscolored...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Examination of a connecting-rod shell bearing from a six-cylinder gasoline engine was done after it was returned to the factory. Copper-lead alloy SAE 485 bonded to a low-carbon steel backing was used to make the bearing and the oil used in the engine was the recommended one...