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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Cracks, with no other damage, were observed in a niobium alloy (Nb-106) part when it was pulled from several months of protective storage for assembly into a rocket nozzle. SEM views showed the cracks to be intergranular, with contaminant particles on a large number of the grain facets...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to contaminants less than 10 nm thick, surface analysis is often necessary to solve adhesion problems. In this example, it was necessary not only to identify the contaminant but also to determine whether the contamination occured before or after a chromate conversion surface treatment. Selected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for the exterior surface of the weld. A segmented backup ring with a gas channel was used inside the vessel to shield the weld root. The pressure vessel failed due to contamination of the fusion zone by oxygen, which resulted when the gas shielding the root face of the weld was diluted by air that leaked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., chloride, stress-corrosion cracking. Replacement decisions were based on the presence of SCC attack or heavy corrosion deposits indicative of extended exposure time to chloride-contaminated water. The existing uncracked pipe, about 75 percent of the piping in the system, was retained despite the presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of ferrous sulfate just upstream of the condenser can aid the formation of protective oxide films. From the preceding discussion, the most obvious corrective measure would be to eliminate sulfide contamination. The prime source of such contamination appears to be the accumulation of sulfide-containing sludge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to form and propagate in tension under the thermal stresses created by the repair-weld heat input. The crack resulted from contamination and embrittlement of a repair weld that had received inadequate gas shielding. Thermal stresses cracked the oxide-rich layer that formed. The gas-shielding accessories...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... the presence of contaminant material exclusively within the ABS resin used to mold the failed covers, and the thermograms suggested contamination with a PBT resin. Further TGA analysis showed the contamination was estimated to account for approximately 23% of the failed cover material. The conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... (790 deg F). Metallographic sections, energy-dispersive x-ray spectra, chemical analyses, tensile tests, and Auger microscope analyses showed the failed bellows met the specifications for the material. However, investigation also showed entire oxide thickness was contaminated with relatively large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The mercury was accidentally introduced into the cylinders during a gas-blending operation through a contaminated blending manifold. Replacement of the contaminated manifold was recommended along with discontinued use of mercury manometers, the original source of mercury contamination. Brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... electron microscopy, EDXA, and x-ray mapping were used to study the steel in the vicinity of this part of the fracture surface. It was found to be contaminated with copper. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from the scale showed that it consisted of magnetite and hematite. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and propagated in a brittle, intergranular fashion. Chemical analysis revealed that lead contamination was a significant factor in the failure and phosphorus may have contributed. The localized nature of the cracks and minimum secondary cracking suggested a distinct, synergistic effect of applied tensile stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... observed, indicating contamination by rusted carbon steel particles. Liquid penetrant testing was used to determine the extent of the cracks, and in situ metallographic analysis was performed over the cracked region. The morphology of the cracks was indicative of transgranular stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract The contamination of lubrication with powdered stone resulted in progressive wear of the internal surfaces of a bearing. Because of the motion of rollers, the inner race exhibited an unusual cyclic washboard wear pattern. Because of a lack of bearing conformity, wear progressed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article considers the main characteristics of wear mechanisms and how they can be identified. Some identification examples are reported, with the warning that this task can be difficult because of the presence of disturbing factors such as contaminants or possible additional...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... presents the variables of interest for a rotating shaft and the load-carrying capacity and surface roughness of bearings. Grooves and depressions are often provided in bearing surfaces to supply or feed lubricant to the load-carrying regions. The article explains the effect of contaminants in bearings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of a sectioned and oxalic acid etched sample. The grain size was found to exceed the ASTM standard. No indications of sensitization were observed during testing with practice A of ASTM A 262. Definitive evidence of contaminants to support SCC as the failure mechanism was not disclosed during analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that the discoloration on the cylinder was associated with metal oxidation products coated with a thin oil film. One of the recommendations was to plate the OD of the cylinder with hard chromium to increase its resistance to erosion. Another recommendation was to reduce the amounts of water contamination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Corrosion in a closed-loop cooling water system constructed of austenitic stainless steel occurred during an extended lay up of the system with biologically contaminated water. The characteristics of the failure were those of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). The corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., H2SO4 anodized, and coated with MIL-C-27725 integral fuel tank coating on the rib side. Scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analysis (both conventional energy-dispersive and Auger analyzers) showed that the anodic coating was applied over an improperly cleaned and contaminated surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...-corrosion resulting from contamination during misprocessing of the vessels. However, another vessel underwent a more severe testing procedure and failed catastrophically. Further investigation supported the conclusion that the failure cause was SCC of titanium in methanol. Attack is promoted by crazing...