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Condenser tubes, corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Failures occurred in admiralty brass condenser tubes in a nuclear plant cooled by freshwater. About 2500 tubes had to be replaced over a span of six years. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, water chemistry (for both intake and outfall), and corrosion products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An E-Brite /Ferralium explosively bonded tube sheet in a nitric acid condenser was removed from service because of corrosion. Visual and metallographic examination of tube sheet samples revealed severe cracking in the heat-affected zone between the outer tubes and the weld joining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to stagnant water on the shell side. It was recommended that the surfaces not be kept in contacts with closed stagnant water for appreciable lengths of time. Chemical processing equipment Condenser tubes, corrosion Condensers 316 UNS S31600 Pitting corrosion Background Several tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Inhibited admiralty brass (UNS C44300) condenser tubes used in a natural-gas-fired cogeneration plant failed during testing. Two samples, one from a leaking tube and the other from an on leaking tube, were examined. Chemical analyses were conducted on the tubes and corrosion deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the tube failed from crevice corrosion under seawater deposits that had formed on the inner surface. Mechanical cleaning of the condenser tubes every 6 months and installation of intake screens of smaller mesh size were recommended. Aluminum bronzes Nuclear reactor components Seawater environment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the formation of protective oxide films was recommended. Condenser tubes Salt water Sulfurization Aluminum brass Pitting corrosion A tube sample from an aluminum brass seawater surface condenser was received for analysis. This condenser had failed due to pitting after less than 1 year of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... This and additional investigation (visual inspection, and 250x micrograph etched with aqua regia) supported the conclusion that the tubing failed by chloride SCC. Chlorides in the steam condensate also caused corrosion of the inner surface of the tubing. Stress was produced when the tubing was bent during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... analysis of the tube confirmed that the material was copper alloy C44300 (arsenical admiralty metal). Fig. 1 Copper alloy C44300 heat-exchanger tube that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Leaks developed in 22 admiralty brass condenser tubes. The tubes were part of a condenser that was being used to condense steam from a nuclear power plant and had been in operation for less than 2 years. Analysis identified three types of failure modes: stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... equipment 304L UNS S30403 2205 UNS S31803 Stress-corrosion cracking Background Several tubes of a high-pressure synthesis gas cooler condensing ammonia in a fertilizer plant leaked in an unexpectedly short time. The tubes were seamless and made of type 304L austenitic stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... wall. These differences were attributed to differences in the pitting mechanism for the two alloys. Alloy Cu-10%Ni (UNS C70600) is used extensively for condenser tubing in seawater applications, because it offers good corrosion resistance at reasonable cost. In polluted, brackish waters, however...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... thickness. Condenser tubes Dezincification Steam turbines 80Cu-20Zn 70Cu-30Zn Dealloying/selective leaching Dezincification is a particular form of corrosive attack which may occur in a variety of environments and to which some brasses are susceptible. It is favoured by waters having a high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A resistance-welded carbon steel superheater tube made to ASME SA-276 specifications failed by pitting corrosion and subsequent perforation, which caused the tube to leak. The perforation was found to have occurred at a low point in a bend near the superheater outlet header...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Eddy current inspection was performed on a vertical evaporator unit (that contained 180 tubes) used in a chemical processing plant. It was advised that the tube material was type 316 stainless steel. The shell-side fluid was condensate and gaseous methylene chloride, while the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for local pitting bursting. Nonuniform heat transfer in Stage 3 operation accelerated the selective corrosion of front-end tubes. The relatively high heat transfer in this stage resulted in condensation of some corrosive gases and consequent corrosion. Continuous operation of the plant with some precautions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... For example, an acid-containing vapor stream may not be corrosive above its dewpoint, but if the stream is cooled below its dewpoint, severe general attack can result from acid condensation on internal surfaces of tube walls. A calculation of the dewpoint when the unit operates at higher-than-atmospheric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., caused by the periodic return of condensate along the long connecting line (some 9 m long). Propagation of the cracks was due to thermal cycling, together with periodic pressure cycles, producing growth by low cycle fatigue. This was aided by corrosion within the cracks and by the wedging action caused...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., but if the stream is cooled below its dew point, severe general attack can result from acid condensation on internal surfaces of tube walls. On the outside surfaces of tubes, corrosion may be concentrated in the bottom row of tubes or in other areas where condensates can accumulate. Water vapors containing acids...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Section through type 316 stainless steel tubing that failed by SCC because of exposure to chloride-contaminated steam condensate. Micrograph shows a small transgranular crack that originated at a corrosion pit on the inside surface of the tubing and only partly penetrated the tubing More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 30 Section through type 316 stainless steel tubing that failed by SCC because of exposure to chloride-contaminated steam condensate. Micrograph shows a small transgranular crack that originated at a corrosion pit on the inside surface of the tubing and only partly penetrated the tubing More