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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract The flange on an outboard main-wheel half (aluminum alloy 2014-T6 forging) on a commercial aircraft fractured during takeoff. The failure was discovered later during a routine enroute check. The flange section that broke away was recovered at the airfield from which the plane took off...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Applying general techniques of failure analysis, the authors deduced that an in-flight explosion brought down a passenger plane. Other evidence pinpointed the location of the explosive, an important factor in establishing responsibility. Commercial planes Explosions Aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... This investigation is continuing. Aircraft components Commercial planes Crashes Passenger airline materials (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure The National Transportation Safety Board simultaneously investigates major accidents in different modes of transportation at any time. The services...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A commercial aircraft wheel half, machined from an aluminum alloy 2014 forging that had been heat treated to the T6 temper, was removed from service because a crack was discovered in the area of the grease-dam radius during a routine inspection. Neither the total number of landings nor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... recommended that the wiredrawing process be reviewed at various levels of steel cleanliness to predict the incidence of drawing defects at the wire surface. Testing the surface quality of the wire prior to spring manufacture was also suggested. Aircraft components Commercial planes Lubrication systems...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... direction. A zone of heavily deformed grains at the fracture edge was revealed by longitudinal metallographic examination. The shearing fractures of a commercially pure titanium screw and a cast cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy were discussed for purpose of comparison. Deformation Surcigal implants...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0090030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A DC-10 in transit from Denver to Chicago experienced failure of the center engine. The titanium compressor disk burst and severed the hydraulics of the plane. Investigation supports the conclusion that the cause of the disk rupture was the presence of a large fatigue crack near...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cleavage across a grain on a single plane would be expected to result in smooth fracture surfaces. Such results are sometimes observed in high-purity, single-crystal specimens but are seldom seen in commercial engineering materials. Commercial engineering materials contain both a distribution of inclusions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Two outboard main-wheel halves (aluminum alloy 2014-T6 forged) from a commercial aircraft were removed from service because of failure. One wheel half was in service for 54 days and had made 130 landings (about 1046 roll km, or 650 roll mi) when crack indications were discovered during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Boundaries and Cleavage Planes (wt.%) Table 4 Element Concentration at Grain Boundaries and Cleavage Planes (wt.%) Detected positions Detected points Si P Mo C N Sn Cr O Fe Ni Grain boundary 1 2.64 3.65 0.76 3.70 2.10 1.40 6.34 0.32 79.91 1.07 2 3.30 7.30 2.36...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... prestrained in torsion to a shear strain of 4.3×. Source (b): Ref 3 In off-axis or bending fractures, the fracture plane is often generally perpendicular with the direction of maximum principal stress, providing information about the type and direction of loading. As the fracture progresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of propagation, crack propagation rate, and decreased strength level. This component failed in fatigue. Crack initiation was on a longitudinal plane visible at the top in a surface hardened region. The crack then propagated on a helical plane in torsion. Note the change in surface roughness as the crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Alternately, cleavage across a grain on a single plane would be expected to result in smooth fracture surfaces. Such results are sometimes observed in high-purity single-crystal specimens but are seldom seen in commercial engineering materials. Commercial engineering materials contain both a distribution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for nonlinear thermo-structural transient analysis using the ANSYS™ [ 11 ] commercial FEA code. Shell-131 is one of the ANSYS™ elements which is a 3D layered shell element having in-plane and through-thickness thermal conductivity capabilities. The element has four nodes with up to 32 thermal degrees of freedom...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surfaces. Fig. 1 General features of fatigue fractures. Initiation of Fatigue Initiation of fatigue in common components made of commercial alloys occurs at—and is dominated by—material and geometric heterogeneities. Sites fostering fatigue crack initiation include inclusions, second phase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... surface features associated with the cracking. Both #2 pins exhibited large, woody textured fracture planes oriented perpendicular to the plane between 12 and 6 o'clock on the pin ( Fig. 6 and 7 ). Fig. 6 Woody textured fracture on Crank #1, pin #2 Fig. 7 Woody textured fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Crack orientation summary Table 3 Crack orientation summary Designation Crack plane Propagation direction LT Normal to longitudinal Long transverse SL Normal to short transverse Longitudinal TS Normal to long transverse Short transverse LS Normal to longitudinal Short...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Initiation of Fatigue Initiation of fatigue in common components made of commercial alloys occurs at—and is dominated by—material and geometric heterogeneities. Sites fostering fatigue crack initiation include inclusions, second-phase particles, voids, machining marks and other surface flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (see the Appendix in the article “Mechanisms and Appearances of Ductile and Brittle Fracture in Metals” in this Volume). This section describes the underlying fundamentals and the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. Both plane stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or assembly for a given combination of loading and boundary conditions. Although this stress state is unique to a specific coordinate system, most commercially available software packages can extract principal stresses as well as maximum shear stresses. A procedure for calculating the planes on which...