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Cold-worked stainless steel

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A heavily worked 304 stainless steel wire basket recrystallized and distorted while in service at 650 deg C (1200 deg F). This case study demonstrates that heavily cold worked austenitic stainless steel components can experience large losses in creep strength, and potentially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... crack deposits. Comparison of the microstructure and hardness of the swaged region and unswaged Grade TP 304 stainless steel tube metal indicated that the swaged section was not annealed to reduce the effects of cold working. The high hardness created during swaging increased the stainless steel's...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... surface. Fatigue striations can be seen in the grain at the lower right-hand corner. Other fracture features are crystallographically oriented. (d) Microstructure of cross section reveals that plate was made from cold-worked stainless steel of high microcleanliness. 80x The microstructure of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... stainless steel components during storage in coastal areas. However, the hardness of the material was higher than that of solution-annealed type 304L stainless steel, indicating that the sheathing was cold worked. It appeared that full solution annealing had not been performed, even though it was specified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... precipitation (including reduction of carbon content, appropriate heat treatment, cold work of steel, reduction of austenitic grain size and stabilizing elements) were described. The presence of microcracks due to highly localized heat concentrations with consequent thermal expansion and considerable shrinkages...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... cold-worked condition. It has been established that cold-worked austenitic stainless steels lose their fatigue strength when notched. It has also been established that austenitic stainless steels in the annealed condition are not sensitive to notches. Cold-worked material is very notch sensitive, with...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... amount of cold work. All stainless steel components are pickled and passivated as a last step in the manufacturing process. This ensures removal of all surface impurities, especially embedded iron, and also provides a uniform passive film for good corrosion resistance. However, it is essential that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...) or D4 (2.25 wt% C, 12 wt% Cr) type cold-work tool steels ( Ref 4 ) or of tungsten carbide ( Ref 5 ), second-intermediate roll steel composition is leaner in carbon content for enhanced toughness. It has been reported ( Ref 6 ) that toughness for intermediate rolls is more important than wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... resist pitting corrosion became an important consideration. Data on the properties of cold-worked type 316 stainless steel cold-drawn wire ( Table 2 ) show that the hardness for the “ 3 4 hard” condition and a diameter of 2.6 mm(0.1 in.) should be 29 to 32 HRC. This should be close to that of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... were cold formed and not subsequently annealed. Cold working without subsequent annealing made the tubes susceptible to SCC because of a high residual-stress level. Fig. 1 Type 304 stainless steel integral-finned tube that cracked from chlorides and high residual stresses. (a) Section of integral...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... failure occurred by fatigue—specifically, a low-cycle, reversed bending fatigue mode. The slight magnetic properties of the austenitic stainless steel indicated that a high degree of cold working had occurred to produce this condition. This cold working may also have resulted in high stresses being...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... secondary crack is shown at thread site (arrow). 55×. (c) Fatigue striations on fracture surface Corresponding to the energy-dispersive x-ray analyses, the screws ( Fig. 1a ) were manufactured from cold-worked remelted (R) type 316L stainless steel and showed no structural or manufacturing defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... vessel. The dished ends were fabricated from 6.0 mm (0.24 in.) thick AISI type 316 stainless steel plate by cold spinning. Stress relieving of the dished ends was not specified. The dished ends were joined to the cylindrical shell portion by tungsten inert gas welding for the root pass and manual metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... stainless steel, 3 16 in. thick, in the hot-rolled, softened and descaled condition. It was perforated with drilled holes 3 16 in. diameter pitched on a 7 8 in. square pattern. After pre-setting of the ends, the shell had been cold-rolled to cylindrical form and the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... embrittlement When they have been severely cold worked, even austenitic stainless steels can hydrogen stress crack ( Ref 1 ). Several type 301 stainless steel clamps, which were used to hold cylindrical galvanized steel covers to galvanized cast iron bases, failed in flooded manholes after 1 to 6 months of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A 150 mm (6 in.) schedule 80S type 304 stainless steel pipe (11 mm, or 0.432 in., wall thickness), which had served as an equalizer line in the primary loop of a pressurized-water reactor, was found to contain several circumferential cracks 50 to 100 mm (2 to 4 in.) long. Two of these...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Catastrophic pitting corrosion occurred in type 304L stainless steel pipe flange assemblies in an industrial food processor. During regular service the pumped medium was pureed vegetables. In situ maintenance procedures included cleaning of the assemblies with a sodium hypochlorite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A spiral heat exchanger made from 316L stainless steel developed a leak after eight years of service as a condenser on a distillation tower. Examination identified the leak as being located on the cooling water side in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a weld joining two plates. Cooling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A number of AISI 347 stainless steel bellows intended for use in the control rod drive mechanism of a fast breeder reactor were found to be leaking before being placed in service. The bellows, which had been in storage for one year in a seacoast environment, exhibited a leak rate on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... microstructure of both samples was composed of heavily worked elongated grains, typical of cold drawn stainless steel spring wire ( Fig. 10b ). Fig. 9 Optical photograph of a transverse cross section through the wire of spring 1, showing the cross section of the drawing defect (void) that initiated the...