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Cold-formed 300 series stainless steel (Austenitic wrought stainless steel)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0091857
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... of a stand-off washer between the wavy washer and the bottom shoulders of the blade or modification of the shape of the wavy washer to prevent contact with the blade shoulders was recommended. Design Food processing Mixer blades Cold-formed 300 series stainless steel (Austenitic wrought stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A heavily worked 304 stainless steel wire basket recrystallized and distorted while in service at 650 deg C (1200 deg F). This case study demonstrates that heavily cold worked austenitic stainless steel components can experience large losses in creep strength, and potentially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... References 1. Washko S.D. , Aggen G. : Wrought stainless steels . In: ASM Handbook , vol. 1 , 10th edn. ASM International , Metals Park, OH ( 1993 ) 2. Zeman A. , Novotny R. , Uca O. , Krsjak V. , Macak J. , Debarberis L. : Behavior of cold-worked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in an unannealed and unpassivated condition. The stainless steel sheet was perforated by punching the required number of holes. This cold-working operation raised the hardness from approximately 77 HRB to as high as 35 HRC in the necks between adjacent holes. This provided the conditions for premature failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and the morphology of cracks that develop, as illustrated by the intergranular SCC that occurs in sensitized austenitic stainless steel alloys and some higher-strength aluminum alloys. Sensitization occurs in some austenitic stainless steels when chromium carbides form at the austenite grain boundaries, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of stainless steels is the intentional forming of a complete exterior chromium trioxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) film by completely cleaning the surface and allowing oxygen to contact and react with the surface. In the common galvanic series, a noble position is assumed by stainless steels in the passive state, while...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and zinc in hot waters of a specific type of chemistry. Stainless Steels Galvanic-corrosion behavior of stainless steels is difficult to predict because of the influence of passivity. In the common galvanic series, a noble position is assumed by stainless steels in the passive state, while a more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... sufficient to fracture the screws in ductile overload. Example 2: Forming Cracks on Stainless Steel Wire. Cold-drawn 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) diameter type 303 stainless steel wire sections failed during a forming operation. All wires failed at a gradual 90° bend. Investigation High-magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... service. Effect of Metallurgical Discontinuities Nonmetallic inclusions, seams, laps, bursts, and pipes are common discontinuities found in wrought products that may cause premature failure. Shrinkage, gas porosity, and cold shuts are likely to occur in castings and can lead to failure, usually...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... austenitic stainless steel wires of the same diameter. Because the carbon steel wire was cold drawn, the austenitic stainless steel wire was ordered cold drawn. The method of attaching the wire around the insulator was changed. A tube of 304 stainless steel with an inner diameter slightly greater than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Example 2: Forming Cracks on Stainless Steel Wire Cold-drawn type 303 stainless steel wire sections, 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter, failed during a forming operation. All of the wires failed at a gradual 90° bend. Investigation High-magnification visual examination disclosed many fine ruptures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... successively in Vilella's reagent, methanolic aqua regia, and Groesbeck's reagent to darken carbides Fig. 32 An AISI 4140 steel, austenitized at 850 °C (1560 °F), oil quenched and tempered for 1 h at (a) 200 °C (390 °F), (b) 300 °C (570 °F), and (c) 550 °C (1020 °F). Etched in aqueous saturated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... aqua regia, and Groesbeck's reagent to darken carbides Fig. 32 An AISI 4140 steel, austenitized at 850 °C (1560 °F), oil quenched and tempered for 1 h at (a) 200 °C (390 °F), (b) 300 °C (570 °F), and (c) 550 °C (1020 °F). Etched in aqueous saturated picric acid containing sodium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., because they occur along the fusion line between the two. There are no limitations as to where along the fusion line these cracks can occur or how far around the weld they can extend, and they can form by either a hot or cold cracking mechanism. Occurrence of Weld Metal Cracking in Steel Occurrence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cause thinning and subsequent rupture. Overheating may or may not occur in tubes thinned by erosion or corrosion. Microstructural Features Prolonged overheating, usually at temperatures below Ac 1 (the temperature at which austenite begins to form) in carbon and low-alloy steels, causes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... precipitate is formed during creep, a simple heat treatment or cold work followed by annealing prior to testing should give a homogeneous distribution of precipitates. Microstructural changes due to the combined influence of temperature and stress can be difficult to evaluate. Therefore, simulation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Copper … 0.10 Prior Steel Structure The structure of the steel prior to hardening, for example, extruded, cast, forged, cold formed, and so on, may enhance the potential for cracking during the quench. Each as-formed structure requires a specific time and temperature cycle to condition...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., increasing hardness is shown to lead to a decrease in the critical amplitude between partial and total slip ( Ref 47 ). The materials were copper, copper silicon, and austenitic stainless steel, all materials of low stacking fault energy; as a consequence, work hardening occurred at low frequencies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such changes may be unavoidable, in many cases, thermomechanical processing schedules can be established to influence the changes so that they tend to strengthen the material or minimize the overall effect. For example, if a heterogeneous precipitate is formed during creep, a simple heat treatment or cold work...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the annealed condition and the component is examined metallographically after fracture. Fig. 12 A cracked cementite particle in a cold-rolled low-carbon steel (approximately 0.1% C). A high magnification view of a cracked cementite particle showing multiple cracks and shattering. Courtesy of Richard...