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Cold-drawn steel

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Recommendations included using quenched-and-tempered steel instead of patented and cold-drawn steel or using a more expensive chromium-vanadium alloy steel instead of plain carbon steel; the chromium-vanadium steel would also need to be quenched and tempered. Automotive components Distortion Springs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the fracture, but they had no effect on the breakage of the wire. Away from the fracture area, the wire had a normal structure of hyperfine lamellar pearlite (sorbite) of a “patented” and cold drawn steel wire. In the vicinity of the fracture, the cementite of the pearlite was partially spheroidized, while...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0065826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract The wires used in a wet precipitator for cleaning the gases coming off a basic oxygen furnace failed. The system consisted of six precipitators, three separate dual units, each composed of four zones. Each zone contained rows of wires (cold drawn AISI 1008 carbon steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0091893
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract An automotive front-wheel outer angular-contact ball bearing generated considerable noise shortly after delivery of the vehicle. The inner and outer rings were made of seamless cold-drawn 52100 steel tubing, the balls were forged from 52100 steel, and the retainer was stamped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0048250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... to a worm that, in turn, engaged and drove a worm gear mounted directly on the hoist drum shaft. The worm and the worm gear were made of leaded cold-drawn 1113 steel and class 35-40 gray iron (nitrided in an aerated salt bath) respectively. The gearbox was found to contain fragments of the worm teeth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... it was attached to a chain for pulling jammed scrap from the baler. The rope was heavily abraded and several of the individual wires were broken. a uniform cold-drawn microstructure, with patches of untempered martensite in regions of severe abrasion and crown wear was revealed by metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The springs formed from 3.8 mm diam cold-drawn carbon steel wire failed to comply with load-test requirements. A split wire in the spring was revealed by investigation. A smooth heat-tinted longitudinal zone was observed in the fracture. It was concluded that the spring failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Two large tension springs fractured during installation. The springs were manufactured from a grade 9254 chromium-silicon steel spring wire. The associated material specification allows wire in the cold-drawn or oil-tempered (quenched-and-tempered) condition. The specified wire tensile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Cold-drawn type 303 stainless steel wire sections, 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter, failed during a forming operation. All of the wires failed at a gradual 90 deg bend. Investigation (visual inspection and 5.3x/71x/1187x SEM views) supported the conclusion that the wires cracked due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... hydraulic hoses), the wire reinforcing strands were a medium-carbon steel in the cold drawn condition. Radiographic nondestructive testing (NDT) was recommended to determine when a hydraulic hose should be replaced. Hydraulic hoses Wire reinforcement Carbon steel Ductile fracture Crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract The fan drive support shaft, specified to be made of cold-drawn 1040 to 1045 steel, fractured after 2240 miles of service. It was revealed by visual examination of the shaft that the fracture had initiated near the fillet at an abrupt change in shaft diameter. The cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... only be concluded from the investigation that the temperature did not exceed the Ac3 point of the wire material, which should be about 750 deg C, and that the heating lasted a fairly long time. Cables Cracking (fracturing) Galvanized steels Overheating Wire Cold-drawn steel (Other, general...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... 0.2% YS MPa (ksi) TS MPa (ksi) Vickers Hardness 304 cold-drawn 1240 (179) 1373 (199) 409 304 exposed for three years 381 (55) 828 (120) 294 304 solution annealed 183 (27) 604 (88) 135 Creep strength at 650 °C with stress of 69 MPa Table 5 Creep strength at 650 °C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Tensile properties of cold-drawn type 316 stainiess steel wire Table 2 Tensile properties of cold-drawn type 316 stainiess steel wire Condition Diameter Hardness, HRC 0.2% offset yield strength Tensile strength Elongation in 50 mm (2 in.), % mm in. MPa ksi MPa ksi 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... tolerances are not critical, it is advisable to use cheap conventional cold drawn steel (CDS) tube. Flow forming, therefore, offers several advantages over conventional tube making methods. Flow forming is used to produce a seamless tube with tight dimensional tolerances. Seamless tubing, theoretically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of 12 mm rod to 10.10 mm diameter wire in a single-hole wire drawing machine. The patented wire rod was pickled and phosphate coated to facilitate lubrication during wire drawing. The 10.10 mm diameter drawn wire was subsequently cold rolled to an intermediate Z-profile and then drawn through five...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by air on the conveyor to develop a fine pearlitic microstructure that can be directly cold drawn [ 2 – 4 ]. During patenting, controlled heating and cooling should be closely monitored to ensure development of microstructure suitable for wire drawing. If process parameters during patenting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with cold-drawn music wire. In music wire the ferrite grains and pearlite colonies are severely deformed, and any prior austenite grain boundaries are destroyed during the drawing operation. Indeed, longitudinal metallographic sections of the wires revealed highly deformed ferrite and pearlite, the normal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... A seemingly innocent substitution of material resulted in distortion of small volute springs made of cold-worked spring-tempered Inconel. Normally, the material was purchased as cold-flattened wire, but one lot of springs was formed from cold-rolled and slit strip because flattened wire could not be obtained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the microstructure indicated that the material was patented and cold-drawn high-carbon steel wire. The distorted spring had a hardness of 43 HRC, and the longer spring had a hardness of 46 HRC. Both hardness and microstructure indicated that the material in the deformed spring had 10% lower yield strength than...