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Cold working (swaging)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and crack deposits. Comparison of the microstructure and hardness of the swaged region and unswaged Grade TP 304 stainless steel tube metal indicated that the swaged section was not annealed to reduce the effects of cold working. The high hardness created during swaging increased the stainless steel's...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Spherical bearings 17-4 PH UNS S17400 Fatigue fracture Background A 17-4 PH steering actuator rod end body broke during normal take-off. A rod end bearing is a three-part assembly of rod end body, race and ball. The assembly process (coining), shown in Fig. 1 , is a cold-working procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...% nital showing necked region. 55×. (e) 2% nital-etched longitudinal section through 1.6-mm-diam wire showing cold working at A, flat-type fracture surface at B, and longitudinal cracks. 100×. (f) Fractured end (left) and longitudinal view (right) of 1-mm-diam wire. Both 34×. Arrows A indicate nick...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... image of the fracture surface near the middle of the spindle Metallographic analysis of the subject failed caster spindle microstructure indicates significant prior cold working of the material around the fracture-initiation area, as shown in Fig. 15 . On the other hand, an equiaxed ferrite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... are shown for the 3 and 8-inch locations in Figure 5 for the reaged condition. Again the inner wall region etched darker. The morphology of the microstructures away from the inner wall as shown in Figure 4 is different from those shown in Figure 3 and 5 . The latter two are typical of a cold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of production. It is obviously very expensive to use drawing operations to produce components from hard-to-work materials. However, if dimensional tolerances are not critical, it is advisable to use cheap conventional cold drawn steel (CDS) tube. Flow forming, therefore, offers several advantages over...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to determine the strength of an entire rope from tensile testing of individual wires, because not all wires are the same diameter, and some filler wires may not be designed for high strength. Microindentation hardness testing can suggest that the material is at a highly cold-worked condition, but hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in fatigue life is also obtained by rolling (cold working) the threads rather than cutting them, as suggested in Example 5 in this article. It is important that the rolling operation follow, rather than precede, heat treatment. Head-to-Shank Fillet The head-to-shank fillet is another site...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... extent by using nuts of a softer material that will yield and distribute the load more uniformly over the engaged threads. Significant additional improvement in fatigue life is also obtained by rolling (cold working) the threads after heat treatment rather than cutting them, as suggested in Example 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Multiple intergranular cracks • Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... triple points• Reaction scales or internal precipitation• Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis• Loading direction may show failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stringers) of oxide particles. When material has been previously cold worked, it is often observed that not only is there debonding at matrix-particle interfaces but also the particles themselves are cracked ( Fig. 12 ). These cracked particles then provide additional crack nucleation sites. Elongated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at the carbide particles. Fracture has also been associated with clusters (bead stringers) of oxide particles. When material has been previously cold worked, it is often observed that not only is there debonding at matrix-particle interfaces, but also the particles themselves are cracked ( Fig. 12...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-stress notch-fatigue failure. Heat Treatment Heat treatment may be required subsequent to a fabricating operation. Deviations from specifications are potential causes of failure. Figure 8 shows a section of tubing made of rimmed steel that had been cold swaged from 65 to 50 mm (2 1 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... evident during operations. For example, small cracks were not detected in a carbon steel ASTM A105 steam drum nozzle that was arc gouged. Consequently, during a cold start-up, a 46 cm (18 in.) crack occurred. Figure 7 shows the cracked nozzle. Prior to the cold start-up, the steam drum had been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... procedures suitable for 1035 steel were not appropriate for the higher-alloy material. Effect of Metallurgical Discontinuities Nonmetallic inclusions, seams, laps, bursts, and pipes are common discontinuities found in wrought products that may cause premature failure. Shrinkage, gas porosity, and cold...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... materials, and selection and training of people ( Ref 3 ). Conceptual Design The first stage of design is to determine the physical concept by which the product will function. This includes the physical principles by which the product will work and an abstract physical model that will employ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... materials, and selection and training of people ( Ref 3 ). Conceptual Design The first stage of design is to determine the physical concept by which the product will function. This includes the physical principles by which the product will work and an abstract physical model that will employ...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are undetected and become evident during operations. For example, small cracks were not detected in a carbon steel ASTM A 105 steam drum nozzle that was arc gouged. Consequently, during a cold start-up, a 46 cm (18 in.) crack occurred. Figure 7 shows the cracked nozzle. Prior to the cold start-up, the steam...