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Coil springs

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... test results for 17-7 PH CH900 and for Custom 455 CH850 stainless steels. Laboratory testing of these two materials in the form of compression springs confirmed the superiority of the 17-7 PH over Custom 455. Aerospace components Coil springs Surface defects 302 UNS S30200 17-7 PH UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0051294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... certainly the cause of failure. The fatigue fracture origin was found on the inside surface of the legs at the point where they joined the coiled body of the spring. It was established that the tines after being wound up by loading with hay, sprung back through the neutral unloaded position...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Failure initiated from the spring inside coil surface. Examination of the fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy showed no evidence of fatigue. Final fracture occurred in torsion. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed high inner-diameter residual stresses, indicating inadequate stress relief...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Failure of AISI type 321 stainless steel internal springs from newly manufactured lip seals on a shaft between a turbine power unit and a pump in a commercial aircraft secondary unit was investigated. Examination of the coils from two failed springs showed that both had failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Two outer valve springs made from air-melted 6150 pretempered steel wire broke during production engine testing. The springs were 50 mm in OD and 64 mm in free length, had five coils and squared-and-ground ends, and were made of 5.5 mm diam wire. It was revealed that fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of failure. The origin was at the outside surface of the coiled spring despite higher stress at the inside surface (due to the Wahl effect). Fig. 1 Fractured music-wire spring. (a) Fracture surface at 9.2×; arrow indicates fracture origin. (b) Fracture surface, 9.2×; arrow indicates hard kernel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... into the blueprints for this component. Fig. 1 Stress versus depth profiles for different steel coil springs Acknowledgments Selected Reference Selected Reference • Maker J.H. , Failures of Springs , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1986...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... fracture Background Music wire springs used in a printer return mechanism failed near the bend in the hook portion of the spring during qualification testing. Applications Music wire springs were specified for a new printer application. The springs were 21-coil music wire springs wound from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... peened (gear B) gears. Source: Ref 41 Fig. 18 Stress versus depth profiles for different steel coil springs Fig. 19 Observation of failed nickel-base alloy (Waspaloy) specimen after rotating bend fatigue. (a) Macro view. (b) Micrograph. Source: Ref 43 Fig. 20 Applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...°) vs. distance from the edge of a split sleeve cold expanded hole (split centered at 0°). Fig. 18 Stress versus depth profiles for different steel coil springs Fig. 19 Observation of failed nickel-base alloy (Waspaloy) specimen after rotating-bend fatigue. (a) Macro view. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 1 Fractograph of the surface of a fracture that occurred one turn from the end of a titanium alloy spring. The arrow indicates the point of contact with the end of the next coil. 10× Fig. 5 Valve spring that failed due to fatigue. Fractographs of similar valve springs are shown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Heat treatment OK Surface condition Unacceptable De-carburization OK Coiling process Surface condition Marginal Heat treatment OK The spring was examined using a scanning electron microscope to determine the origin of the failures. Figure 1 shows the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... Stress calculations were then conducted to determine the number of fractures possible as a result of fatigue due to spring deflection. The 1.27 cm (0.5 in.) diameter spring, d, had the following dimensions: 9 coils (7 active coils = N); free length (L f ) = 15.875 cm (6.25 in.); coil outside diameter (D...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 587 – 626 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538 The springs fractured within the coils rather than at the end hooks, where fatigue fracture often occurs. The springs were painted black. Examination of the fracture locations revealed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanically by forcing the upper cup toward the lower cup with three precalibrated coil springs in the assembly. The rod specimen is rotated by a direct-drive electric motor mounted in line with the specimen below the table. The three balls are, in turn, driven by the rod and rotate around the rod. Lubricant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... (provide stable torque output) before phosphating. Although this operation creates residual tensile stresses in the interior surfaces of the coils, phosphating of this spring had not produced sufficient hydrogen absorption to cause embrittlement. Fig. 1 Carbon steel counterbalance spring that failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... inner spring. Most of the distortion had occurred in the first active coil (at top, Fig. 1 ), and a surface residue of baked-on oil present on this end of the spring indicated that a temperature of 175 to 205 °C (350 to 400 °F) had been reached. Temperatures lower than 120 °C (250 °F) usually do...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... , 3 ]. This is the reason fractures of springs at the end of their fatigue life normally initiate on the ID of the coil. Therefore, a surface defect or other feature was suspected that would shift the fatigue initiation site to the OD. Fig. 1 Typical spring fracture, showing flat transverse...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... sections in place, welding proceeded. Note electrical coils that wrap each section; they were used for preheating and postheating the weld. ...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was tempered martensite. Etched with Marble's reagent. 70× Fig. 34 Coil spring made from AISI H12 tool steel that cracked after heat treatment. A tight seam that was not removed by centerless grinding before heat treatment opened during hardening (arrows). 0.3× Fig. 35 Portion of an AISI A8...