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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... surfaces of the failed axle and exemplar fractures obtained from simulation tests were studied using scanning electron microscope. The examination showed that the outer perimeter fracture in the axle was very flat and composed of cleavage and that the interior portion was composed of both cleavage and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... overboring of the rotor to remove indications close to the surface and revision of starting procedures, were implemented to extend the remaining life of the rotor and ensure its fitness for continued service. Cleavage Electric power generation Forgings Nonmetallic inclusions Cr-Mo-V Metalworking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... cleavage, probably caused by cast-in hydrogen. The intergranular appearance resulted from heat treatment of the already cracked part, which caused the formation of grain-boundary “growth figures” on the exposed crack surfaces. It was recommended that the castings be more closely inspected for defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the fracture was brittle and was initiated by an intergranular cracking mechanism. The mode of fracture outside the crack initiation zone was transgranular cleavage. No indication of fatigue was found. The failure was attributed to improper heat treatment during manufacture, which resulted in a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the material. It was recommended that the equipment manufacturer implement an appropriate heat treatment to meet the impact requirements of the application. Casting defects Cleavage Mining machinery Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels Shrinkage UNS J12084 UNS J13047 UNS J13855 ASTM A487...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... In addition, the nature of the fracture and the results of the notched bar impact tests showed that in spite of the high C-content, the eye bolt had become brittle as a result of aging. Cleavage Eyebolts Materials selection Strain aging St 37-2N Brittle fracture After several years...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... cleavage. The crack followed the heat-affected zone of a welded joint connecting a rectangular hollow section member and a plate flange. The main factors contributing to failure were related with a combination of design-in and manufacturing-in factors like high load-strength ratio at the point of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) revealed areas of damage due to rubbing with evidence of cleavage fracture on the unaffected surfaces. The results of stress analysis indicated that repeated reversals of the spindle produced stresses exceeding the fatigue limit of the shaft material. These stresses led to the formation of microcracks in a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... mode with cleavage and ductile, dimpled shear. Hardness values as high as 35 HRC were measured in the bend area. The as-galvanized bolts fractured in a brittle manner. Failure was attributed to improper bending of the bolts, which provided a severely cold-worked bend area susceptible to strain-age...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... surfaces were all similar in appearance, and a primary crack origin could not be identified. A secondary crack brought to fracture in the laboratory showed brittle, cleavage features rather than classic, tensile overload features. This suggested that the material was embrittled. Alkalies Caustic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the crack origin were revealed by microscopic examination and cracking was found to be transgranular. Periods of corrosion alternated with sudden instances of cleavage, under a tensile load, along preferred slip planes were interpreted during examination with a microscope. It was concluded that the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Rivets from the longitudinal seam of the terminal shell ring of a 12 year old Lancashire boiler broke off easily during examination. Cleavage fractures indicated a brittle material. Microstructure of a sectioned rivet head was typical of a normal rimming steel except the ferrite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... hook. The rated capacity of the crane was 15 tons. At the time of the mishap it was being used to lift one end of a hydraulic cylinder with a total weight of about 27 tons. Fracture was of the cleavage type throughout. There was no evidence of any prior deformation of the material in the vicinity, nor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... cracking started was revealed by visual examination of the fracture region. Almost 50% of the fracture surface was found to contain beach marks (indicative of fatigue failure) while the remainder contained cleavage facets. A medium-coarse acicular as-forged structure was revealed by metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... release of the load. Fracture was wholly of the brittle cleavage type except for a small crescent shaped lip at the top right-hand side. In this zone, fracture occurred at an angle of 45 deg to the general plane of fracture, indicative of failure in shear. Failure of the hook had taken place where a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... cracking started was revealed by visual examination of the fracture region. Almost 50% of the fracture surface was found to contain beach marks (indicative of fatigue failure) while the remainder contained cleavage facets. A medium-coarse acicular as-forged structure was revealed by metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... formation of hard spots. The mode of crack propagation was established by microstructural examination to be transgranular cleavage. It was concluded that failure of the pressure vessel stemmed from the formation of transverse fabrication cracks in the HAZ fostered by the presence of hard spots. It was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... small cracks at the root of the weld. The cleavage mode of fracture was confirmed by SEM. The presence of extensive secondary cracking and twinning (Neumann bands) where the fracture followed the line of the shroud-support ring was revealed by metallography. It was revealed by refinery maintenance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... river patterns encountered in cleavage and quasi-cleavage failures ( Ref 2 ), which are often associated with hydrogen induced cracking ( Ref 3 , 4 ). The direction of propagation of cracking in such failures is indicated by the convergence of the river line (cleavage steps) in the direction of local...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... said to have failed prior to rollover if the estimated force for failure is equal to or less than forces imposed on the axle during events leading to the rollover. axle cleavage fracture induction hardening medium carbon steel surface cracking fractography critical stress intensity Medium...