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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Initially, two vertical double-acting two-stage compressors delivering chlorine gas at a pressure of 100 psi appeared to be running satisfactorily. About six months later the LP piston-rod of the No. 2 compressor failed due to burning, the compressor being worked double-acting at the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... sulfur, mainly from the flue gas, and calcium and chlorine, mainly from the sea water. The gray corrosion product was interspersed with rust and a black carbonaceous deposit. Corrosion pitting and poor weld penetration, with carbide precipitation and heavy etching at grain boundaries, indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A type 430Ti stainless steel flue gas expansion joint cracked because of caustic-induced stress-corrosion cracking. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis of the fracture surface deposits revealed the presence of sodium and potassium—caustics in hydroxide form. Primary fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The first-stage nozzles of a high-pressure turbine section of an industrial gas turbine exhibited leading and trailing-edge deterioration. The nozzles were made of X-40, a cobalt-base alloy, and were aluminide coated. Failure analysis determined that the deterioration was the result of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... contributing factor was the length of time spent in the packaging, 21 years. Cracking (fracturing) Heat shields Residual stress Weld defects 321 UNS S32100 Stress-corrosion cracking The standard depot level maintenance of Pratt & Whitney/U.S. Navy J52-P-6, J52-P-8, and J52-P-408 gas turbine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Gas turbines and other types of combustion turbomachinery are susceptible to hot corrosion at elevated temperatures. Two such cases resulting in the failure of a gas turbine component were investigated to learn more about the hot corrosion process and the underlying failure mechanisms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... pronounced at the tie rod end of the failure. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of fracture surfaces from the bellows showed the presence of chlorine and sulfur. Failure of the bellows was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking, with chlorine and sulfur being the corroding agents. The rod damage was the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... per day, 3 days per week 52 weeks per year Methanol and methylene chloride fumes are drawn from the coater by a blower. The gas temperature is approximately 25 °C (77 °F) and contains approximately 97% air. Fig. 1 Process flow chart of chlorinated solvent combustion system. Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Severe pitting corrosion of a carbon steel tube was observed in the air preheater of a power plant, which runs on rice straw firing. Approximately 1450 tubes were removed from Stage 3 of the preheater (air inlet and flue gas outlet) due to corrosion and local bursting. Samples from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) indicated significant segregation of sulfur and chlorine along the grain boundaries. Failure was attributed to hypochlorous-acid (HClO)-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The HClO was formed by the reaction of HCl with atmospheric O 2 that entered the tube during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Several type 304L (UNS S30400) stainless steel seamless tubes in a high-pressure synthesis gas cooler condensing ammonia in a fertilizer plant leaked in an unexpectedly short time. Representative samples of the tubes were subjected to chemical analysis, hardness tests, and optical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... formation of polythionic acid in the process gas. ring type pipe joint fracture polythionic acid stainless steel transgranular fracture fractography creep strength 347 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S34700 321 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S32100...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... seal), or inadequate head. Pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and, most importantly, corrosion-enhanced cavitation erosion contributed to the impeller failure. In addition to the aqueous hydrochloric acid environment, chlorine gas and ferric chloride are potential corrosive agents...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... cycle of the Huey test (a test sample is boiled in 65% HNO 3 for 48 h), showed no appreciable intergranular attack. Samples of both tanks were tested for reaction with sodium hypochlorite at three strength levels: The prescribed concentration of 125 ppm available chlorine The triple-strength...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0065826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... 425 to 200 °F (218 to 93 °C). Thus, the new attachment method produced an ideal stress concentrator, the wire had a high level of residual stresses, the gas contained chlorine ions and the temperature was above 200 °F–ideal conditions for chloride ion SCC of type 304. Furthermore, the framework...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... recommended as a dissolvent agent and boiler fuel but not as turbine gas fuel because of its high degree of oxidation. Furthermore, it behaves as a highly corrosive gas due to the presence of many impurities, such as sulfur, sodium, vanadium, iron, carbon, and chlorine. The physical and chemical properties of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... shell side of the economizer was exposed to flue gas with an expected temperature of approximately 450–600 °F. The tubes of the economizer contained process water, which consisted of process condensate with an expected temperature of approximately 95–200 °F. Specific details of the water chemistry were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Connectors, corrosion Hydrogen sulfide, environment Oil field equipment, materials selection Pipe, corrosion Sour gas, environment Stress corrosion 9% Ni steel Hydrogen damage and embrittlement During a workover of an oil well, the 9% Ni steel production tubing parted three times as...