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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Initially, two vertical double-acting two-stage compressors delivering chlorine gas at a pressure of 100 psi appeared to be running satisfactorily. About six months later the LP piston-rod of the No. 2 compressor failed due to burning, the compressor being worked double-acting at the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... fillet weld. Cracking was found to be apparent on the tank surface, adjacent to the coupling weld. Chlorine, carbon, and oxygen in addition to the base metal elements were revealed by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometric analysis. A great number of secondary, branching cracks were evident in the weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... pronounced at the tie rod end of the failure. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of fracture surfaces from the bellows showed the presence of chlorine and sulfur. Failure of the bellows was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking, with chlorine and sulfur being the corroding agents. The rod damage was the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... solution. It was determined that the assemblies failed due to an austenite-martensite galvanic couple activated by a chlorine bearing electrolyte. The martensitic areas resulted from a transformation during cold-forming operations. Solution annealing after forming, revision of the design of the pipe flange...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The thin plates within a type 309 stainless steel chlorinated solvent combustion preheater/heat exchanger designed to process fumes from a solvent coating process showed severe corrosion within 6 months of service. Within a year corrosion had produced holes in the plates, allowing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A cast silicon bronze (UNS C86700) impeller that had been severely corroded was submitted for failure analysis. The failed part was used to pump potable water, but service life and chlorine content of the water were unknown. The impeller displayed a Cu-rich red phase on its surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) indicated significant segregation of sulfur and chlorine along the grain boundaries. Failure was attributed to hypochlorous-acid (HClO)-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The HClO was formed by the reaction of HCl with atmospheric O 2 that entered the tube during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... sulfur and chlorine in the surface deposits. The observations indicated that the screws had failed by fatigue. Insufficient preloading was considered to be the most likely cause of the fatigue cracking. It was recommended that the proper preload on the screws be verified and maintained. Hydraulic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the outer diameter. The entire impeller surface was tested by the dry magnetic particle method. Visual and microstructural examinations revealed intergranular cracking. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy of corrosion products contained in the cracks disclosed the presence of chlorine and sulfur The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... disassembled and examined to determine the cause of failure. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed significant peaks for chlorine and phosphorus, indicating failure by chloride stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Cracks in the liner and bellows exhibited a branched pattern also typical of SCC. Cracks through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cleaning practices that cause long-term exposure to chlorine-containing cleaning fluid, and solution annealing of the dished ends at 1050 deg C (1920 deg F) for 1 h followed by water quenching to relieve residual stresses. Contaminants Marine environments Transgranular corrosion 304L UNS S30403...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... characteristic of acidic attack. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope revealed the presence of chlorine in the pit deposits, indicating that the pitting was promoted by underdeposit chloride attack. The presence of copper in deposits on the internal surface of the tubing may have acted as a secondary factor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... morphology of the impeller fragments suggested that the aluminum had melted and resolidified. The deposits were similar in composition and were identified by XRD as consisting primarily of aluminum trifluoride. In addition, EDS analysis detected major amounts of chlorine and iron. Results of a combustion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... flowed through the tubes was generally sanitary (chlorinated) well water; however, treated recirculating water was sometimes used. Analysis (visual inspection, 9x and 75x unetched micrographs, and spectrochemical analysis) showed a thick uniform layer of porous, brittle copper on the inner surface of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... species on the tubes in Stage 3. The complete failure of the tube occurred due to diffusion of these elements into the base metal and precipitation of potassium and chlorine compounds along the grain boundaries, with subsequent dislodging of grains. The nonmetallic inclusions acted as nucleating sites for...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... because of unrelated tube failures. Sanitary (chlorinated) well water was generally used in the system, although filtered process make-up water (river water) containing ammonia was occasionally used. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, mercurous nitrate testing, unetched 5X micrographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to stress-corrosion cracking and additional corrosion due to ventilation elements. Because austenitic chromium nickel steels are prone to stress-corrosion cracking, particularly in the presence of chlorine compounds at high temperatures, and because austenitic rust- and acid-resistant steels are...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was attributed to the fact that they were downstream from a deaeration unit. It was concluded that the pitting was caused by a synergistic effect of chlorine and oxygen in the make-up water. Because it was not possible to install a deaeration unit upstream of the heat exchangers, it was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the corrosion deposit, yielded the following results: Element Composition, % Copper 69 Zinc 17 Sulfur 9 Aluminum 2.5 Chlorine 1.5 Calcium 1 Iron, silicon, magnesium trace The black deposit was identified as primarily copper sulfide, with zinc and aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and the fir tree crack marked with an arrow. The crack in the blade originated at three locations in the first notch in the fir tree. Corrosion pits were observed at each origin. The machined surface of the fir tree contained many small corrosion pits and the chlorine detected in the...