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Chlorides

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... lines in the system had thru-wall cracks. Shallow incipient cracks were detected at the lowest elevations of one other line. The balance of the system had no signs of SCC attack. Chlorides and corrosion deposits in varying amounts were found throughout the system. The failure mechanism was transgranular...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 Type 304 stainless steel integral-finned tube that cracked from chlorides and high residual stresses. (a) Section of integral-finned tube showing major crack (circumferential crack between fins). Dimension given in inches. (b) Branched transgranular cracking propagating from major crack More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Type 304 stainless steel integral-finned tube that cracked from chlorides and high residual stresses. (a) Section of integral-finned tube showing major crack (circumferential crack between fins). Dimension given in inches. (b) Branched transgranular cracking propagating from major crack More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 9 Type 304 stainless steel integral-finned tube that cracked from chlorides and high residual stresses. (a) Section of integral-finned tube showing major crack (circumferential crack between fins). Dimension given in inches. (b) Branched transgranular cracking propagating from major crack More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A section of clear polymeric tubing failed while in service. The failed sample had been used in a chemical transport application. The tubing had also been exposed to periods of elevated temperature as part of the operation. The tubing was specified to be a polyvinyl chloride (PVC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... sets of tubes. Microscopic examination revealed that the pits had a small mouth with a large subsurface cavity which is typical of chloride pitting of austenitic stainless steel. However, no pitting was found in other areas of the system, where the chloride content of the process water was higher...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... precipitation. The transgranular cracks indicated that failure was due partly to stress-corrosion. It was concluded that the chlorides provided the main corrodent for both the stress and intercrystalline-corrosion cracking. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Corrosion environments Heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract One-quarter inch diameter 304 stainless steel cooling tower hanger rods failed by chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The rods were located in an area of the cooling tower where the air contains drop lets of water below the mist eliminators and above the flow of water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract AISI type 410 stainless steel tube bundles in a heat exchanger experienced leakage during hydrostatic testing even before being in service. The inside surfaces of the tubes was observed to have been pitted. Chloride-ion pitting was revealed by the undercutting in the cross section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the fracture to the pits on the inner surface of the vessel were revealed. Copper deposits with zinc were revealed by EDS examination of discolorations. Pitting was revealed to have been caused by poor oxygen control in the steam generators and release of chloride into the steam generators. It was concluded...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Microstructure of a sound region. Etched with ferric chloride. 500 × More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 29 Stub-shaft assembly, for agitator in a polyvinyl chloride reactor, that failed by ductile fracture. Top left: Configuration and dimensions (given in inches). Detail A: Sections through failure area showing original design, first revised design, and final design Element Chemical More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 22 Chloride SCC in a type 347 stainless steel shaft in a hydrogen-bypass valve. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Isometric tensile creep curves for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride at 20 °C (68 °F), 50% relative humidity More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 29 Fracture in a polyvinyl chloride water filter. The fracture surface of the fatigue crack started from a fissure (arrow F). The lower dark zone is an artifact due to sectioning of the filter wall. 75× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 Branching cracks typical of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). (a) Chloride SCC of type 304 stainless steel base metal and type 308 weld metal in an aqueous chloride environment at 95 °C (200 °F). Cracks are branching and transgranular. (b) Caustic SCC in the HAZ of a type 316L stainless More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 11 Annealed type 310 stainless steel after extended exposure to a chloride-containing environment while under load. Structure shows typical mode of transgranular SCC. Electrolytic: 10% chromic acid. 150× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Sulfidation and chloridation attack on nickel alloy of charcoal-regeneration kiln. See also Fig. 8 . Region 1 is an area of chromium sulfide islands (dark phase) interspersed in chromium-depleted region (bright phase). Region 2 has angular phase (consisting mostly of nickel sulfide More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Sulfidation and chloridation attack on nickel alloy of charcoal-regeneration kiln, with greater magnification (at ∼44×). Lower right is region of chromium sulfide islands (dark phase) interspersed in chromium-depleted region (bright phase). Middle region has angular phase (consisting More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Chloride distribution profiles for patch and original concrete from the west (W) to east (E) face of beam A1. More