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Chlorides

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... lines in the system had thru-wall cracks. Shallow incipient cracks were detected at the lowest elevations of one other line. The balance of the system had no signs of SCC attack. Chlorides and corrosion deposits in varying amounts were found throughout the system. The failure mechanism was transgranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... water. To check for chlorides, the inside of the tubing was rinsed with distilled water, and the rinse water was collected in a clean beaker. A few drops of silver nitrate solution were added to the rinse water, which clouded slightly because of the formation of insoluble silver chloride. This and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A section of clear polymeric tubing failed while in service. The failed sample had been used in a chemical transport application. The tubing had also been exposed to periods of elevated temperature as part of the operation. The tubing was specified to be a polyvinyl chloride (PVC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... inspection, 10x unetched images, liquid-penetrant inspection, and chemical analysis of the insulation) supported the conclusion that the failure occurred in the area of the flange-to-cone weld by SCC as the result of aqueous chlorides leached from the insulation around the liner by condensate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Eddy current inspection was performed on a vertical evaporator unit (that contained 180 tubes) used in a chemical processing plant. It was advised that the tube material was type 316 stainless steel. The shell-side fluid was condensate and gaseous methylene chloride, while the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... shutdown periods at ambient temperatures. The corrosive environment contained trace hydrogen chloride and acetic acid vapors as well as calcium chloride if leaks occurred. The exact service life was unknown. The bolt surfaces showed extensive corrosion deposits. Cracks had initiated at both the thread...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... more thorough analysis showed failure was caused by tube vibration. In a third case, a type 304 stainless steel bellows in a test loop was thought to have failed because of chloride stress corrosion. The report concluded with a recommendation that carbon steel be used as an alternative bellows material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-corrosion cracking beneath the pitted areas on the OD. The likely cause of the cracking was chloride stress corrosion, with chlorides deriving from the marine atmosphere and concentrating under the insulation around the support rings. A complete insulation evaluation, including repair or replacement, was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the fracture to the pits on the inner surface of the vessel were revealed. Copper deposits with zinc were revealed by EDS examination of discolorations. Pitting was revealed to have been caused by poor oxygen control in the steam generators and release of chloride into the steam generators. It was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... disassembled and examined to determine the cause of failure. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed significant peaks for chlorine and phosphorus, indicating failure by chloride stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Cracks in the liner and bellows exhibited a branched pattern also typical of SCC. Cracks through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Practical examples of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and methods for its prevention were presented. Cracks in chloride-sensitive austenitic steels were very branched and transcrystalline. Etched cross sections of molybdenum-free samples showed chloride-induced cracks running out of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
..., centerline shrinkage from inadequate risering had decreased life by reducing the cross-sectional area. Type CF-8M is not resistant to chloride SCC where the chloride concentration is considerable. The biggest problem was the bending of these parts. Deformed material with high residual stresses would always...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract The Pandia digester is a long cylindrical vessel which uses alkaline sulfite liquor to cook sawdust for pulping. The inlet cone was fabricated from AISI 304L stainless steel with E308 welds. Typical liquor concentration was approximately 80% NaOH, 20% Na2SO3 with chloride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... sets of tubes. Microscopic examination revealed that the pits had a small mouth with a large subsurface cavity which is typical of chloride pitting of austenitic stainless steel. However, no pitting was found in other areas of the system, where the chloride content of the process water was higher. This...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract One-quarter inch diameter 304 stainless steel cooling tower hanger rods failed by chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The rods were located in an area of the cooling tower where the air contains drop lets of water below the mist eliminators and above the flow of water The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... precipitation. The transgranular cracks indicated that failure was due partly to stress-corrosion. It was concluded that the chlorides provided the main corrodent for both the stress and intercrystalline-corrosion cracking. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Corrosion environments Heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cracking. Stresses responsible for the cracking resulted from weld contraction. The pans had been hosed down periodically with water from local boreholes to remove sugar from the external surfaces, which introduced the corrosive medium. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Evaporator pans...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A corrosion resistant chromium nickel steel (X 2 Cr-Ni-Mo 18 10) worm drive used in a chemical plant at 80 deg C and 100 to 200 atm pressure to transport media containing chloride failed during normal operation. Visual inspections showed that the entire surface of the gear was covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... stresses would be greatest. The compressor intake was situated in the vicinity of nitric acid pumps which had a history of leakage troubles, and which had evidently given rise to the nitrates found on the impeller. Air compressors Chlorides Corrosion environments Impellers Nitric acid Pumps Fe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... every piece of the spring were revealed by visual examination. Each of the fractures was found to be oriented at 45 deg to the wire axis. Clear evidence of pitting corrosion at the fatigue fracture origin was also observed. Free chloride ions were revealed to be present in the ink in which the spring...