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Chloride environment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... control in the steam generators had been poor for some time and that hydrazine levels had been kept low due to environmental concerns. These factors were thought to contribute to pitting. In addition, a turbine-blade failure occurred and damaged about 50 condenser tubes, releasing sufficient chloride into...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-and 400-series stainless steels can occur after brief exposures to chloride environments. In this case, failure was caused by chlorides in the water used to flush the tubes before service. Pitting could be reduced or eliminated by avoiding the use of brackish water to flush or test stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... corrosion pitting. The worst area of pitting is shown in Figure 4 . Zirconium and zirconium alloys are extremely resistant to corrosives, including the aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) service environment experienced by the subject impellers. Only a few environmental species will attack zirconium. These...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... precipitation. The transgranular cracks indicated that failure was due partly to stress-corrosion. It was concluded that the chlorides provided the main corrodent for both the stress and intercrystalline-corrosion cracking. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Corrosion environments Heat...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers. It...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... cold-worked condition, it was not possible to determine with certainty if the cracks were of the inter- or trans-granular type. It was concluded that failure was due to stress-corrosion cracking in a chloride environment. Failure of the wires was likely due to the use of a chloride-containing flux...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... base metal adjacent to the welds. Use of highly stressed austenitic stainless steels in high-chloride environments having a temperature above 65 deg C (150 deg F) should be discouraged. Solution annealing or shot peening to reduce residual stresses may be advisable. If heat treatment is not feasible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... water. To check for chlorides, the inside of the tubing was rinsed with distilled water, and the rinse water was collected in a clean beaker. A few drops of silver nitrate solution were added to the rinse water, which clouded slightly because of the formation of insoluble silver chloride. This and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... shutdown periods at ambient temperatures. The corrosive environment contained trace hydrogen chloride and acetic acid vapors as well as calcium chloride if leaks occurred. The exact service life was unknown. The bolt surfaces showed extensive corrosion deposits. Cracks had initiated at both the thread...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... primary failure mechanism in the areas of the bolts directly exposed to the working environment. Corrosion damage on surfaces facing away from the work environment was caused primarily by chloride stress-corrosion cracking, aided by loose fitting threads. Thread gaps constitute a crevice where an...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A type 304 austenitic stainless steel tube (0.008 max C, 18.00 to 20.00 Cr, 2.00 max Mn, 8.00 to 10.50 Ni) was found to be corroded. The tube was part of a piping system, not yet placed in service, that was exposed to an outdoor marine environment containing chlorides. As part of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A 2000-T6 aluminum alloy bracket failed in a coastal environment because corrosive chlorides got between the bracket and attachment bolt. The material used for the part was susceptible to stress corrosion under the service conditions. Cracking may have been aggravated by galvanic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... simultaneously for TGSCC to occur: (1) chlorides, (2) elevated temperature, (3) sustained tensile stress, and (4) availability/exposure to an aggressive environment. Other factors such as pH and presence of oxidizers also influence TGSCC but are not variables in this case. Each of the four major influencing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... been adequately stress relieved. It was recommended that a complete stress-relieving treatment be applied to the formed bellows. Improvement of storage conditions to avoid direct and prolonged contact of the bellows with the humid, chloride-containing environment was also recommended. Breeder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... metal. (b), (c), and (d) Etched with ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid in methanol The response of the aluminide-coated blades to the hot-corrosion environment of the turbine rotor varied considerably. Metallographic examination of two blades from a high-temperature region of the rotor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... testing. Checking the test fluid for chloride and removing all fluids after hydrostatic testing were recommended to prevent further failure. Chlorides, environment 321 UNS S32100 Stress-corrosion cracking A type 321 stainless steel downcomer expansion joint ( Fig. 1 ) was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... cracks under environmental and load conditions similar to those anticipated for the bearing. The relatively brief report contained: two sketches, one of the test mockup (closely simulating the part I was concerned with) and one showing crack locations; a description of the test conditions (environment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... way of stress-corrosion cracking as a result of exposure to a wet-chloride-containing environment. Therefore, a change in tube material was recommended to avoid future failures and loss of service. This case history was adapted from: Nondestructive Inspection of Tubular Products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... recommended to prevent chloride buildup. Painting of the steel surface with an epoxy-phenolic or epoxy-coal tar was also suggested. Chemical processing industry Columns (process) Marine environments 316 UNS S31600 Stress-corrosion cracking Pitting corrosion A type 316 stainless...