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Chloride contamination

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., chloride, stress-corrosion cracking. Replacement decisions were based on the presence of SCC attack or heavy corrosion deposits indicative of extended exposure time to chloride-contaminated water. The existing uncracked pipe, about 75 percent of the piping in the system, was retained despite the presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the inner liner initiated on the outer surface of the liner and propagated inward, whereas cracks in the bellows originated on the inner surface and propagated outward. Stress-corrosion cracking of the assembly was caused by chloride contaminants trapped inside the bellows following hydrostatic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... primarily copper sulfide, with zinc and aluminum sulfides while the green deposit was revealed to be copper chloride. The combination of sulfide and chloride attack on the tubes was concluded to have resulted in the failure. Injection of ferrous sulfate upstream of the condenser which could aid the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... austenitic stainless steel. Fig. 1 Section through type 316 stainless steel tubing that failed by SCC because of exposure to chloride-contaminated steam condensate. Micrograph shows a small transgranular crack that originated at a corrosion pit on the inside surface of the tubing and only partly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-side fluid was contaminated liquid methylene chloride. More than 100 tubes exhibiting severe outer surface pitting and cracklike indications near each tube sheet were revealed during eddy current inspection. It was observed that the indications correlated with rust-stained, pitted, and cracked areas on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... related to chloride or sulphate ion steam contaminants. Subsequent sectioning and conventional metallography confirmed both the validity of the conclusions and the replication techniques. Corrosion products Field metallography Intergranular corrosion Turbine discs 2.5Ni-Cr-Mo-V Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... materials, in addition to having a superior resistance to chloride-induced SCC, exhibit low thermal strains as compared to austenitic stainless steels. We recommended identifying and eliminating the service-related factors which contributed to carry-over and subsequent chloride contamination. ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... used to generate electricity at a major power plant. Chloride contamination of the steam reportedly occurred a few months prior to the inspection. The blade was reportedly manufactured from DIN X20Cr13 stainless steel, a martensitic steel with approximately 13% chromium. A sample of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., it was determined that the cracks and associated leak were the result of chloride stress-corrosion cracking. spiral heat exchanger corrosion chloride contamination stainless steel transgranular cracks chemical analysis residual stress 316L (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S31603...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... approximately 9 months. Several corroded grate bars were examined metallographically and by electron microscopy to determine the causes of the accelerated corrosion. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses were also conducted, along with simulation tests to assess the role of alkali chlorides in the corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... sites of carbon steel contamination on the inside surface of a dished end The common causative factors for SCC of the stainless steel components were determined to be (1) rusting of the iron contaminants, (2) the presence of chloride in the coastal environment, and (3) stresses arising from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
..., heat-affected zone, and base metal. The branching and transgranular cracking was found to emanate primarily from the exterior of the tank. It was concluded that the tank failed as a result of stress-corrosion cracking that initiated at the exterior surface as aqueous chlorides, especially within an...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-corrosion and enquiries revealed that the sugar liquor contained about two per cent. of sodium chloride. A chemical analysis of the skirt material showed this to be a titanium-stabilised 19/10 Cr.Ni. austenitic stainless steel and it is an established fact that contamination by chlorides can lead to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... pitting was caused by cavitation and erosion along the length of the venturi tube. Corrosion and pitting was seen on the exterior walls of the diffuser tubes. Stress-corrosion cracks were observed emanating from these corrosion pits. The corrosion likely occurred from the chloride ions present in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... stainless steel. Also work by Bednar ( 13 ) suggests that alloys of 301 and 305 stainless steel will crack in chloride environments at temperatures between 95 to 154°C, it is, therefore, advisable to reduce or eliminate chloride contamination in contact with stainless steel. Examples of incomplete flushing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... hot corrosion caused by a combination of contaminants, cooling-hole blockage, and coating loss. Hot gas corrosion X-40 UNS R30031 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation The first-stage nozzles of a high-pressure turbine (HPT) section of an industrial gas turbine exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... 1380 deg F). Additionally, it was suggested that fuel delivery, handling, and treatment be high quality, to maintain fuel contamination within design limits, and inlet air filtration must be designed for the coastal site. Also, changing the bucket tip by increasing its thickness and changing the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... contamination. Additional recommendations were to eliminate these short longitudinal weld joints by using a bracket assembly joint between the tubes, use a post-weld heat treatment to relieve residual welding stress or select a more stress-corrosion cracking resistant alloy for this particular application...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the resistance values, resulting in circuit nonperformance at inappropriate times. The low termination strength was attributed to deficient chip design for the intended materials and manufacturing process and exacerbated by the presence of polymeric contamination at the termination interface...