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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A sledge hammer chipped during use. The chip struck a by stander in the eye, leading to its loss. The hammerhead surface was examined visually, nondestructively (magnetic particle method), and stereo microscopically, and a microstructural analysis of a cross section of the head was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A crane long-travel worm drive shaft was found to be chipped during unpacking after delivery. Chemical analysis showed that the steel (EN36A with a case depth of 1 mm, or 0.04 inch did not meet specifications. Magnetic particle inspection revealed a crack on the side of the shaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A carbon steel ball-peen hammer ejected a chip that struck the user's eye. Failure occurred when two hammers were struck together during an attempt to free a universal joint from an automotive drive shaft. Two samples were cut from the face of the hammer one through the chipped area on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Several surface-mount chip resistor assemblies failed during monthly thermal shock testing and in the field. The resistor exhibited a failure mode characterized by a rise in resistance out of tolerance for the system. Representative samples from each step in the manufacturing process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to the discovery of overlooked debris in an engine chip detector, and thus resulted in a review of several maintenance practices. aircraft bearings operating overload inadequate maintenance and inspection M50 alloy steel bulk deformation energy dispersive spectrometry chemical composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... followed a multidirectional/circular pattern, occasionally chipping off the convolutions, an indication of high-resonance fatigue-type cracking. Scanning electron fractography showed fatigue striations throughout the fracture surface. The microstructure consisted of relatively large grains and an abnormal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... screwing of such a line into the closure head of the pressure vessel, which was made of nickel steel, an annular chip of the inner and seal plane of the closure piece was squeezed off. At this location similar conditions must have prevailed as in the adjoining pipe line with the exception of possibly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... teeth 9310 UNS G93106 Fatigue fracture Two adjacent teeth from a carburized AISI 9310 steel spiral bevel gear experienced fatigue failure, which initiated in a chromium-and nickel-depleted region. Visual examination of the two adjacent broken teeth and large chip...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... bearing steel) UNS G52986 High debris count was detected in the magnetic chip detector (MCD) of a jet engine of a military aircraft. Compositional analysis carried out in the laboratory using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) attached to scanning electron microscope (SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... . Fig. 2 Schematic of a silicon-lithium energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Courtesy of Thermo Fisher Scientific Incident x-ray photons pass through a “window” that separates the detector from the vacuum chamber of the SEM, penetrate the lithium-infused single-crystal silicon chip, and are...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... investigations established a link between the interdendritic cracking and the deep fissures observed ( Fig. 5 , 10 , and 11 ). EDS analysis and element maps revealed that the corrosion products associated with the fissure were iron and nickel sulfides. The digester is used to cook wood chips to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., in this specific case, after 683 operating hours, metal particles were observed on the magnetic chip detector fitted on an oil scavenge line. The composition of the particles was 18% W, 4% Cr, 1% V, with the balance iron. The oil temperature was 150 °C. The engine remained in service after the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chip packages and global printed circuit board cooling considerations that interact. These temperature conditions cause macrothermal distortions of the entire printed circuit boards (PCBs) as well as microdistortions at the solder joints that connect the chips to the PCBs. The cyclic thermal expansions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... improved machinability is through a chip-breaking action as tools cut through the material, rather than tolerating long, stringy chip segments. The MnS inclusions act as discontinuities to allow the chips to break, act as self-lubricating agents, and as antistick agents on the tool. These properties all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... tractor-trailer combination loaded with wood chips was approaching an intersection on a rural highway. When the driver applied the brakes he hear a snap and found that he had lost control of vehicle. The vehicle veered to the left and then rolled over. The river suffered a broken neck. Three samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Figure 1 shows a schematic of the specimen locations in the failed condenser tube. Samples outside the failed regions were used for chemical analysis of the tube material. Fig. 1 Schematic of relative locations of samples taken for examination. Metal chips taken from an area some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... spectroscopy system. RF, radio frequency. Source: Ref 3 Metal chips, shavings, or cuttings that are not suitable for OES analysis can be analyzed by ICP-OES techniques. A sample mass of at least 100 mg is preferred to obtain high-precision results with low detection limits. Lower sample masses can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... roughing bit or ground with 60-grit grinding paper. ICP-OES requires chips for acid digestion. Qualitative methods require subjective judgement by an experienced user to interpret the data and the results are not considered accurately quantifiable. Some methods allow for the results to be easily...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... patterned after the approach of Mutton ( Ref 10 ) and Moore ( Ref 11 ). Gouging abrasion occurs under conditions where abrasive particles indent and move over the wear surfaces under high stress levels. It involves both cutting and tearing types of wear, in which small chips of...