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Chemical processing industry

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Stress Corrosion Cracking in the Chemical Process Industries , Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries , Columbus, OH , 1985 , p. 41 . Selected References Selected References • French D.N. , Failures of Boilers and Related Equipment , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... plating Chemical processing equipment Chemical processing industry Regenerators Valves Cadmium-coated steel Surface treatment related failures Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Background Several cadmium-plated carbon steel socket head cap screws failed. Applications The cap screws...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... be improved by through hardening or induction surface hardening of the teeth. Catastrophic wear Chain drives Chemical processing industry Shafts (power) UNS G10200 UNS G10450 1020 1045 (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) wear Background Replacement sprockets ( Fig. 1 ) installed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by internal carburization. Quality control of welding procedures and filler metal was recommended. Chemical processing equipment Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Crack propagation Furnaces Heat-resistant steels Tubing Weld defects Welded joints HK-40 UNS J94204 Joining-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., was recommended to prevent chloride buildup. Painting of the steel surface with an epoxy-phenolic or epoxy-coal tar was also suggested. Chemical processing industry Columns (process) Marine environments 316 UNS S31600 Stress-corrosion cracking Pitting corrosion Background A type 316 stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... chemical substances, and the large variation in processes accomplished. The present work deals with failure analysis and determination of the cause of damage of a component used in this highly demanding industry. The component under examination, shown in Fig. 1 , is a bent tube (elbow) that is used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the structural ceramics used in gas turbine components, the automotive and aerospace industries, or as heat exchangers in various segments of the chemical and power generation industries. It covers the fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reactions and are most frequently found in chemical process streams. All the aforementioned reactions are quite similar: they consume electrons. The aforementioned partial reactions can be used to interpret virtually all electrochemical corrosion problems. Consider what happens when iron is immersed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... formation of polythionic acid in the process gas was responsible for the SCC failure of the RTJ components. SCC failure by polythionic acid in petrochemical industries is a concern and hence, appropriate preventive measures are generally incorporated in the system so that the process gas containing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of a chemical plant at a tropical location developed several hundred leaks soon after startup. Applications Hydrotesting of new pipework and reservoirs in the petroleum industry and in chemical processing plants is conveniently achieved by using water pressure. A pump is used to force water through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in chemical process streams. All of the above reactions are quite similar; they consume electrons. The above partial reactions can be used to interpret virtually all electrochemical corrosion problems. Consider what happens when iron is immersed in water or seawater that is exposed to the atmosphere...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in critical industries, such as power generation, oil and gas, process plants, aviation, as well as smaller related industries to drive other machinery, to generate electricity, or to generate electricity and produce steam as in a combined cycle where the system incorporates a gas turbine, steam turbine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... within the tube) and then fractured, which allowed molten salt to flow into the tube. Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Fused salts, environment Overheating Tubing St 35.8 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Background A low-carbon steel (St35.8) tube in a chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , receives the electrons given up by the oxidation process. The driving force for corrosion is the free energy released by the overall chemical reaction resulting from combined cathodic and anodic half-reactions: (Eq 1) Anodic reaction M → M n + + n   electrons Cathodic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... opportunities to improve operating processes and procedures related to the management of system integrity. Industry experience with corrosion-resistant alloys of steel, copper, and aluminum is reviewed. The article ends with a discussion on monitoring and preventing microbiologically influenced corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and liquid nitriding. These samples were tested for chemical and metallurgical analysis, and subjected to hardness test. Endurance test for selected process with specified load applied for 5 lac cycle was performed, and after completion of cycle, dimensions of various components were measured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001906
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Suspension lugs fabricated from AISI 4340 steel used to facilitate loading of bombs onto the underside of military aircraft could not sustain required loads during routine proof load testing. Three failed lugs underwent visual examination, chemical analysis, metallography, hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Chemical composition of duplex stainless steel Table 1 Chemical composition of duplex stainless steel C Si Mn P S Cr Ni N Mo V Cu W Co Fe 0.02 0.52 1.85 0.02 0.001 23.00 5.7 0.19 3.28 0.07 0.13 0.02 0.02 bal Chemical composition of austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... vessel. Ammonium compounds Chemical processing equipment Explosions Fires Nitrates Spargers Titanium (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A Case Study from the files of Dr. Charles Rau On 13 December 1994, two massive detonations leveled portions of an ammonium nitrate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... by the operating enviromnent. It turned out that the fact the couplings failed in the well was a “red herring.” As indicated previously, this material and coupling design represent an industry standard and should not have failed in service. Therefore, it became necessary to scrutinize the manufacturing process...