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Chemical processing equipment, corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... material was recommended to avoid future failures and loss of service. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Eddy current testing Evaporators Tubes 316 UNS S31600 Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Eddy current inspection was performed on a vertical evaporator unit used in a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... transport results in slightly more rapid metal loss at the tips of the fissures in the deposit, producing grooves at these locations. The physical structure of the deposits in this equipment included a reticulated pattern of intercolumnar fissures, leading to the reticulated corrosion pattern on the metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... equipment Electric fuses Ferrules Humidity C27000 UNS C27000 Stress-corrosion cracking A substantial number of copper alloy C27000 (yellow brass, 65Cu-35Zn) ferrules for electrical fuses cracked while in storage and while in service in paper mills and other chemical processing plants. The ferrules...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... station and implementation of bacteria control measures (a special drying process after washing and use of a sanitizing rinse) were recommended. Bacterial corrosion Tanks, corrosion Trucks 316L UNS S31603 Biological corrosion Pitting corrosion Selected Reference...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to stagnant water on the shell side. It was recommended that the surfaces not be kept in contacts with closed stagnant water for appreciable lengths of time. Chemical processing equipment Condenser tubes, corrosion Condensers 316 UNS S31600 Pitting corrosion Reference...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... mode of cracking. It was recommended that weld seams be furnace heat treated at a temperature of 600 to 640 deg C (1110 to 1180 deg F) for a minimum of 1 h per inch of section thickness. Chemical processing equipment Heat-affected zone Pipe, corrosion Repair welding Welded joints, corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., collection and preservation of corrosion products, particularly loose, flaky, or powdery deposits, may be vital because chemical analysis of corrosion products can be a key factor in determination of cause. Boilers and other types of steam-power-plant equipment are subject to a wide variety of...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the first step in the design of any pressure vessel is to select the proper design code based on its intended use. For example, a pressure vessel may be a power or heating boiler, a nuclear reactor chamber, a chemical process chamber, a hydrostatic test chamber used to test underwater equipment, or a...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is easily recognized; excessive wear can usually be corrected by changing the material or its processing. However, the complete elimination of wear of lifting equipment may require selection of a material that is subject to brittle fracture—an alternative that may well be unacceptable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Materials Characterization , Vol 10 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2019 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006630 IDENTIFICATION OF ALLOYS using quantitative chemical analysis is an essential step during a metallurgical failure analysis process. Alloy/materials selection plays a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to determine the root cause of the differences noted in the fatigue test data of main rotor spindle assembly retaining rods fabricated from three different vendors, as part of a Second Source evaluation process. ARL performed dimensional...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... embrittlement. Chemical processing equipment Installing ASTM A36 Brittle fracture References 1. Erasmus L.A. and Pussegoda L.N. , Strain Age Embrittlement of Reinforcing Steels , N.Z. Eng. , Vol 32 ( No. 8 ), Aug 1977 , 179 – 183 2. “Safeguarding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was used in the subject component Microchemical analysis: to find evidence of contamination, to evaluate the composition of microphases revealed on a metallographic specimen, or to evaluate corrosion products Extreme care must be used in interpretation of chemical analysis work performed as...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... isolated from water and excessive heat. Water leaking into the vessel through a graphite seal may have initiated the reactions that caused the accident. Blenders Chemical processing equipment Explosions Stainless steel (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure Ductile fracture Following...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Because these techniques are so surface-sensitive, they are often employed in failure analysis or general surface characterization. Typical applications include identification of thin layers of contaminants on surfaces or at interfaces, evaluation of cleaning processes, corrosion studies, adhesion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... impermeable to the diffusion of ionic species was recommended. Chemical processing equipment Nitric acid, environment Spools, corrosion Sulfuric acid, environment Teflon-lined carbon steel Intergranular corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Selected References • Lampman S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... ). EDS analysis and element maps revealed that the corrosion products associated with the fissure were iron and nickel sulfides. The digester is used to cook wood chips to break down lignin and release fibers, which are natural components of wood. The batch process begins with filling the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... inlet and replacement of the floating skirt with virgin material (i.e., material unaffected by weld repairs). Chemical processing equipment Condenser tubes, corrosion Condensers (liquefiers) Heat-affected zone Nitric acid, environment Repair welding Tube plate, corrosion Welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... heat boiler to determine the extent of metal damage in other areas by measuring the degree of ferromagnetism, (2) replacement of metal determined to be magnetic, and (3) closer monitoring of temperatures in the region of the reformer furnace outlet. Boilers Chemical processing equipment Erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , receives the electrons given up by the oxidation process. The driving force for corrosion is the free energy released by the overall chemical reaction resulting from combined cathodic and anodic half-reactions: (Eq 1) Anodic reaction M → M n + + n   electrons Cathodic...