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Chemical processing equipment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.9781627082204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... material was recommended to avoid future failures and loss of service. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Eddy current testing Evaporators Tubes 316 UNS S31600 Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Eddy current inspection was performed on a vertical evaporator unit used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... equipment Electric fuses Ferrules Humidity C27000 UNS C27000 Stress-corrosion cracking A substantial number of copper alloy C27000 (yellow brass, 65Cu-35Zn) ferrules for electrical fuses cracked while in storage and while in service in paper mills and other chemical processing plants...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to provide cathodic protection. Chemical processing equipment Pipelines Underground corrosion 304L UNS S30403 Galvanic corrosion One of five underground drain lines intended to carry a highly acidic effluent from a chemical-processing plant to distant holding tanks failed in just a few months...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...- and transgranular cracking. It is probable that the heating associated with the repair welds made from time to time also contributed to the trouble. The transgranular cracks, however, were indicative of stress-corrosion cracking. Chemical processing equipment Repair welding Storage vessels Vessels Weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the corrosion to an acceptable limit. Chemical processing equipment Sulfuric acid, environment UNS S31603 UNS N08020 316L 20Cb Uniform corrosion Background Neutralization tanks made of type 316L (UNS S31603) stainless steel became severely corroded in service, even though field corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to stagnant water on the shell side. It was recommended that the surfaces not be kept in contacts with closed stagnant water for appreciable lengths of time. Chemical processing equipment Condenser tubes, corrosion Condensers 316 UNS S31600 Pitting corrosion Background Several tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-carbon steel handle was welded to low-carbon steel plate, using low-carbon steel electrodes. This plate was then welded to the type 502 stainless steel plate with type 310 stainless steel electrodes. This design produced a large weld section over which the load was distributed. Chemical processing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... because of unrelated tube failures. Sanitary (chlorinated) well water was generally used in the system, although filtered process make-up water (river water) containing ammonia was occasionally used. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, mercurous nitrate testing, unetched 5X micrographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cracking. Stresses responsible for the cracking resulted from weld contraction. The pans had been hosed down periodically with water from local boreholes to remove sugar from the external surfaces, which introduced the corrosive medium. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Evaporator pans...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... plating Chemical processing equipment Chemical processing industry Regenerators Valves Cadmium-coated steel Surface treatment related failures Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Background Several cadmium-plated carbon steel socket head cap screws failed. Applications The cap screws...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Recommendations included eliminating the chlorides from the system, maintaining the temperature of the outlet stream above the dewpoint at all times, or that replacing the type 316 stainless steel with an alloy such as Incoloy 800 that is more resistant to chloride attack. Ammonia Chemical processing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to be completely martensitic. Thus, the failure was due to hardening of the base material during welding, and recommendation was made to temper or anneal the welded regions to reduce the effects of hydrogen under pressure. Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Heat exchangers Post heating Welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... impermeable to the diffusion of ionic species was recommended. Chemical processing equipment Nitric acid, environment Spools, corrosion Sulfuric acid, environment Teflon-lined carbon steel Intergranular corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Background A flanged 100 mm (4 in.) diam low-carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... precipitation. The transgranular cracks indicated that failure was due partly to stress-corrosion. It was concluded that the chlorides provided the main corrodent for both the stress and intercrystalline-corrosion cracking. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Corrosion environments Heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Decarburization Surface defects Nickel steel St 55.25 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Unalloyed steels and the pure nickel steels frequently used in the past for highly stressed forgings are attacked by hydrogen under high pressure. The attack causes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... processing equipment Fibrous structure Manifolds Unalloyed steel Hydrogen damage and embrittlement A cooler of an ammonia synthesis plant was destroyed after 3 years' service due to the rupture of a distribution manifold. The cooler consisted of a row of upper distribution manifolds and lower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking caused by a corrosive atmosphere. Chemical processing equipment Weldments ASTM A294 Stress-corrosion cracking Background Radial cracking occurred adjacent to 11 vanes in a 19-vane ASTM A-294 impeller. The vanes were fillet welded to both the disk...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... microscopy examination. The tests revealed that the tubes conformed to specification. Crack morphology indicated stress-corrosion cracking by chlorides present in the cooling water. Use of a duplex stainless steel (for example, UNS S32304 S31803) as a tube material was recommended. Chemical processing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0046953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...), which exceeded normal operating temperatures, and carburization was not the principal cause of failure. No recommendations were made. Chemical reactors Melting Overheating Hastelloy X UNS N06002 (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A portion of the wall of a reactor vessel used...