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Chemical milling

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract The floors (fabricated from aluminum alloy 7178-T6 sheet, with portions of the sheet chemically milled to reduce thickness) of the fuel tanks in two aircraft failed almost identically after 1076 and 1323 h of service, respectively. Failure in both tanks occurred in the rear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... material, and those that exhibited a dual failure. The last category failed in the adhesive bond and also showed a type of pitting on one face of the base material. In a third case, a 2024-T4 extrusion section was found to exhibit blistering after chemical milling. The presence of interconnecting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Composition A check on the chemical composition confirmed that both milling machine arbors were made of the material 16 Mn Cr 5 ( Table 1 ). Chemical composition of the milling machine arbors in wt.% Table 1 Chemical composition of the milling machine arbors in wt.% C % Si % Mn % Cr...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A substantial number of copper alloy C27000 (yellow brass, 65Cu-35Zn) ferrules for electrical fuses cracked while in storage and while in service in paper mills and other chemical processing plants. The ferrules, made by three different manufacturers, were of several sizes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract Two broken ball-mill liners from a copper-mine ore operation were submitted for failure analysis. These liners failed prematurely, having reached less than 20% of their expected life. The chemical composition of the liners was within specifications for high-chromium white cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract Investigation of alleged corrosion damage to hot-rolled steel during transit requires metallurgical, chemical, and corrosion knowledge. Familiarity with non-destructive techniques and sampling procedures is necessary. A complete record of shipment history is also required...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Several teeth of a bevel pinion which was part of a drive unit in an edging mill failed after three months in service. Specifications required that the pinion be made from a 2317 steel forging and that the teeth be carburized and hardened to a case hardness of 56 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0091853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract A 230 mm (9 in.) diameter disk attrition mill was scheduled to grind 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) diameter quartz particles to a 0.075 mm (0.003 in.) diameter powder. Due to severe wear on the grinding plates, however, the unit was unable to complete the task of grinding the rock...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... 5350 (AISI type 410) stainless steel that was through-hardened to 26 to 32 HRC and passivated, was shown to be cracked. The crack initiated at the sharp corner of the elongated milled slot and propagated across to the outer wall. The sections around the crack were spread about 30 deg apart, showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract The rim of a gear wheel of 420 mm width and 3100 mm in diam broke after four years of operation time in a sheet bar three-high rolling mill. The rim was forged from steel with about 0.4C, 0.8Si and 1.1Mn. The rim started to break in the tooth bottom from a fatigue fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract Within the first few months of operation of an 8 km (5 mile) long 455 mm (18 in.) diam high-pressure steam line between a coal-fired electricity-generating plant and a paper mill, several of the Inconel 600 bellows failed. The steam line operated at 6030 kPa (875 psi) and 420...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., SEM fractographic, metallographic, chemical, and mechanical property (tension and impact toughness) analyses were conducted. On the basis of the tests and observations, it was concluded that the failure was the combined result of poor notch toughness (impact) properties of the steel, high stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the foundry/mill or certificates of conformance (CoC) indicating the composition of the materials from an independent test house. Bulk chemical analysis during a failure investigation can then be used to perform a positive material identification (PMI) of the suspect part and determine if the part conforms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Several nickel-base superalloy (UNS N06600) welded heat-exchanger tubes used in processing black liquor in a kraft paper mill failed prematurely. Leaking occurred through the tube walls at levels near the bottom tube sheet. The tubes had been installed as replacements for type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... area of dealloying. Etched Chemical Analysis/Identification Material and Weld A qualitative chemical analysis was performed on the pipe material, dealloyed area, and casting material using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This analytical technique is capable of performing elemental...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... In typical paper mill recovery boilers, stainless steel superheater banks are often installed because of their superior fireside corrosion resistance, excellent high-temperature strength, and relatively good weldability with chromium/molybdenum low-alloy steel tubing in the system. This particular tertiary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., visually inspected, and rotated 120 deg every three weeks to ensure that no single location was overheated for a prolonged period of time. Analysis (visual inspection, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, and x-ray analysis, 60x micrograph etched with 10% oxalic acid) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... solidification. Even in steel that is produced by a “killed” or “deoxidized” process, chemical reactions can continue in the ladle as the metal is being cast. Although the mills often test multiple specimens from a single ladle, they rarely report more than one of the analysis results on the certification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... passes reduces the amount and depth of the twinning network. Chemical etching, chemical milling, and heat treating are recommended to remove the machining-damaged layer ( Ref 11 ). High-strength steels and many alloy steels are susceptible to undesired transformed surface layers, which increases...