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Chemical analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Identification of alloys using quantitative chemical analysis is an essential step during a metallurgical failure analysis process. There are several methods available for quantitative analysis of metal alloys, and the analyst should carefully approach selection of the method used. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Chemical analysis is a critical part of any failure investigation. With the right planning and proper analytical equipment, a myriad of information can be obtained from a sample. This article presents a high-level introduction to techniques often used for chemical analysis during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... these techniques for chemical characterization of surfaces. Table 1 Surface analysis technique summary chart Surface analysis technique Parameter AES XPS TOF-SIMS Probe beam Electrons X-ray photons Ions Analyzed beam Electrons Electrons Ions Average sampling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... solvent. Investigation (visual inspection, stereomicroscopic examination, 20x/100x SEM images, micro-FTIR in the ATR mode, and analysis using DSC and TGA) supported the conclusion that the chemical storage vessel failed via a creep mechanism associated with the exertion of relatively low stresses. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A metallurgical failure analysis was performed on pieces of the cracked vent header pipe from the Edwin I. Hatch Unit 2 Nuclear power plant. The analysis consisted of optical microscopy, chemical analysis, mechanical Charpy impact testing, and fractography. It was found that the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... ductile, and chemical analysis showed a higher level of aluminum in the brittle specimens. Failure obviously occurred due to the high material aluminum content that increased hardness which then caused embrittlement at the surface which led to cracks or fracture on bending. Since no explanation of how the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... A failure analysis was requested to determine the cause of fracture. Two hooks were submitted for examination. Analysis (visual inspection, 2.7x light fractography, chemical analysis, 110x SEM fractography, 27x/110x/215x nital-etched micrographs) supported the conclusions that this component...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... A failure analysis was requested to determine the cause of fracture. Two hooks were submitted for examination. Analysis (visual inspection, 2.7x light fractography, chemical analysis, 110x SEM fractography, 27x/110x/215x nital-etched micrographs) supported the conclusions that this component...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046963
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... 6.4 mm into the web section. Analysis (visual inspection, 5000 and 10,000x TEM fractographs, chemical analysis, and 9x metallographic examination) supported the conclusions that cracking on the forward rim of the spacer occurred in fatigue that initiated on the forward rim face and that progressed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... cracks, which had penetrated the pipe wall, were responsible for leaks detected in a hydrostatic test performed during a general inspection after seven years of service. Investigation (visual inspection, visual and ultrasonic weld examination, water analysis, and chemical analysis) supported the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
..., 200x micrographs, chemical analysis, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that the primary cause of the failure was the brittleness (lack of impact toughness) of the steel. The coarse bainitic microstructure was inadequate for the service application. The microstructure resulted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
..., containing citric and phosphoric acids and having a pH of 2.4 to 2.5. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, immersion testing in the soft drink, and 100x unetched micrographs) supported the conclusion that the failure was caused by the size and distribution of sulfide stringers in the alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the piece. Investigation (visual inspection, on-site radiographic inspection, limited ultrasonic inspection, chemical analysis, 53x metallographic cross sections and SEM images etched in 8:1 phosphoric acid) supported the conclusion that the cracking mechanism was intergranular SCC. No recommendations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract An intergranular stress-corrosion cracking failure of 304 stainless steel pipe in 2000 ppm B as H3BO3 + H2O at 100 deg C was investigated. Constant extension rate testing produced an intergranular type failure in material in air. Chemical analysis was performed on both the base metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Failures occurred in admiralty brass condenser tubes in a nuclear plant cooled by freshwater. About 2500 tubes had to be replaced over a span of six years. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, water chemistry (for both intake and outfall), and corrosion products in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., 2% nital etched 297x images, chemical analysis, and SEM fractographs) supported the conclusion that the superheater tube failed as a result of long-term overheating. Substantial creep damage reduced the strength of the tube to the point that overload failure occurred. No recommendations were made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract The crane hook (rated for 13000 kg) failed in the threaded shank while lifting a load of 9072 kg. The metal in the hook was revealed by chemical analysis to be killed 1020 steel. It was disclosed by visual examination that the fracture had at the last thread on the shank and rough...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... measured 1.5 m (58 in.) in diameter and 8.5 m (28 ft) in length. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, radiography, dye-penetrant inspection, and hydrostatic testing of all E-Brite welds, 4x images, 100x/200x images electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid, and V-notch Charpy testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A brass elbow that formed one termination of a steam heating coil failed adjacent to the brazed connection after ten years of service. Chemical analysis showed that the elbow was made from a 60-40 CuZn brass containing 3% lead and 1% tin, a typical alloy used for the manufacture of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... inspection, 10x unetched images, liquid-penetrant inspection, and chemical analysis of the insulation) supported the conclusion that the failure occurred in the area of the flange-to-cone weld by SCC as the result of aqueous chlorides leached from the insulation around the liner by condensate...