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Caustic soda

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the solution of caustic soda and possibly the temperature also were in the range known to produce stress-corrosion cracking of mild steels in the presence of stresses of sufficient magnitude. In this instance the location of the cracking suggested that residual stresses from welding, which approach...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... concentration of caustic soda (NaOH) of the order 10% and, it is thought, a minimum temperature 70°C. The concentration of caustic soda usually found in the waters of boilers in the low and medium pressure range is usually below 500 ppm (0.05%), and cracking therefore will only occur where concentrations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... Immediately after and without intermediate polish, the section was etched at 2 V terminal potential in a 10n solution of caustic soda which in addition etched and colored the sigma phase. The result for the broken recuperator is reproduced in Figs. 2 , and for the unused one in Figs. 3 . Accordingly, the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... with ammonia water ( Fig. 5 ), but was discolored brown by caustic soda solution ( Fig. 6 ). Therefore it did not consist of chromium carbide but of σ-phase 1 . The fracture followed along the σ-precipitates at the grain boundaries ( Fig. 7 ). The cracking of the disks therefore was caused or favored...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... from stress-corrosion. (×5). Fig. 3 Multiple branching cracks resulting from stress-corrosion. (×100). Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to this type of failure in the presence of solutions containing chlorides or caustic soda, particularly at temperatures approaching 100°C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... utility. Waters could be rendered non-pitting by raising their pH values to over 8 and neutralizing the free carbon dioxide. Aeration, or additions of caustic, soda ash, or lime could help resolve the problem. Neutralizing filters, which have also been used in similar cases in the past, could assist in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... water contained caustic soda (NaOH) or the boiler water chemistry was conducive to the formation of caustic soda ( Ref 4 ). In their 1926 paper, “The Cause and Prevention of Embrittlement of Boiler Plate,” researchers at the University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station concluded, “The results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stainless steel in the annealed condition with a weld of type 308 stainless steel. Figure 1(b) shows intergranular caustic SCC of 316L stainless steel. Fig. 1 Branching cracks typical of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). (a) Chloride SCC of type 304 stainless steel base metal and type 308 weld metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the possibility of an environmentally induced fracture; that is, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Unfortunately, mud cracks can also be created by caustic cleaning residue from attempts to clean the fracture before providing the specimen to the analyst. Fig. 11 Mud cracks on the surface of an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... aid of a small hand lens. Fig. 34 Cleavage fracture in a soda lime glass. Crack progresses from left to right. (a) Fracture surface shows the initiation region (featureless mirror region), mist surrounding the mirror region, and hackle. (b) Geometry of tensile test showing position of fracture...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2