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Caustic cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract During microscopic examination of a number of cases of caustic cracking, a certain feature has been recognized that appeared to be associated only with caustic cracking. This was a preferential attack on the carbide envelopes and lamellae of the pearlite grains. Evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Caustic cracking is the term used to describe one of the forms in which stress-corrosion cracking manifests itself in carbon steels. In the present study, persistent leakage occurred after ten weeks of service from tube expansions in the steam and mud drum of a two-drum D type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to a temperature of 130 deg C (266 deg F). Magnetic crack detection revealed circumferential crack-like indications situated a short distance from the butt weld. Cracking originated on the bore surfaces of the tube and was of an intergranular nature reminiscent of caustic cracking in steam boilers. The strength...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by caustic-induced stress-corrosion cracking. Sodium was detected by EDS in the internal deposits and the base of a gouge in a carbon steel tube and in the internal deposits of the stainless steel tube. The sodium probably formed sodium hydroxide with carryover moisture and caused the gouging, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A type 430Ti stainless steel flue gas expansion joint cracked because of caustic-induced stress-corrosion cracking. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis of the fracture surface deposits revealed the presence of sodium and potassium—caustics in hydroxide form. Primary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... which developed was of the form known as caustic cracking. It was recommended that water for de-superheater use should be taken after the deaerator and prior to the addition of salts which may deposit or concentrate in the desuperheater. Bellows Corrosion environments Leakage Sodium hydroxide...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., embrittlement of this type was the primary cause of the breaking off of the type rivet heads. Nothing was observed in the course of the examination that suggested caustic cracking. Aging Boiler plate Rivets Rimming steel Brittle fracture When the lagging was removed from the longitudinal seam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... metallurgical approach to failure analysis to confirm that the cracking was caused by a caustic stress-corrosion cracking mechanism is presented. Caustic cracking Chemical processing equipment Compressor blades Sodium hydroxide, environment 4320 UNS G43200 Stress-corrosion cracking Background...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... caustic-induced stress-corrosion cracking, promoted by the presence of residual welding stresses. Improved maintenance of check valves and routine inspection of critical monitoring systems (conductivity alarms, sodium analyzers, etc.) were recommended to help avoid future occurrences of severe boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... an exactly intercrystalline path, which is characteristic for caustic corrosion cracks. It was recommended that the internal stresses be removed through annealing or alternatively lye-resistant steel should be used. Boilers Riveted joints Steam Fe-0.05C-0.38Mn Stress-corrosion cracking Steels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... material. Caustic, not chloride, stress corrosion was the culprit. Had material substitutions been made on the original premise of countering chloride stress corrosion, most of the loop's highly stressed components would have eventually failed. Bearings Bellows Caustic stress corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... indicated the presence of sodium on crack surfaces, which is indicative of NaOH-induced stress-corrosion cracking. Failure was attributed to superheater problems that resulted in caustic carryover from the boiler. Two options for disk repair, installing a shrink-fit disk or applying weld buildup, were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., but there had been no selective attack on the carbide constituent, as is seen in many instances of caustic cracking—one form of stress corrosion in steel. The region adjacent to the external surface was decarburised, and the examination of further specimens indicated that this was not a service effect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... provided a caustic solution (NaOH) to remove HCl from the stream, before the latter was directed to a burner. Metallographic examination showed that the cracks were intergranular and were frequently branched. Although nominal chemical composition of the component was found within the specified range...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... with the nozzle weld. Caustic embrittlement Potassium hydroxide Pressure vessels ASTM A516 Grade 70 UNS K02700 Stress-corrosion cracking A large pressure vessel ( Fig. 1a ) that had been in service for about 10 years as a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) absorber developed cracks and began leaking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Numerous cracks observed on the surface of a forged A470 Class 4 alloy steel steam turbine rotor disc from an air compressor in a nitric acid plant were found to be the result of caustic induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). No material defects or anomalies were observed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the annealed condition with a weld of type 308 stainless steel. Figure 1(b) shows intergranular caustic SCC of 316L stainless steel. Fig. 1 Branching cracks typical of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). (a) Chloride SCC of type 304 stainless steel base metal and type 308 weld metal in an aqueous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... Corroding surface, at left, shows absence of carbides and presence of voids. (b) Same as (a) except solution was high in phosphate and low in caustic. 100× Figure 5a shows complete decomposition of the pearlite and cracking toward the corroding surface in the solution containing a high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... inspection, SEM fractographs, and micrographs) showed evidence of IGSCC initiating at the OD and IGA under ridgelike deposits that were analyzed and found to be slightly alkaline to very alkaline (caustic) in nature. Crack oxide analysis indicated sulfate levels in excess of expected values. The analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... reminiscent of attack by concentrated caustic, as for example, that shown in Fig. 13 . In addition, the fact that the material in the embrittled region has cracked in an inter-crystalline manner, may also have given some support to this hypothesis, due possibly to the similarity between such cracking...