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Cathodic protection

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A failure of an aboveground storage tank occurred due to external corrosion of the tank floor. The liquid asphalt tank operated at elevated temperatures (approximately 177 deg C, or 350 deg F) and had been in service for six years. Cathodic protection (rectifiers) had been installed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... coating must be either burnished or cured at 540 deg C (1000 deg F) to provide cathodic protection to the steel. Other coatings, such as cadmium or aluminum, were also recommended if a thinner coating is needed. Cathodic protection Protective coatings Studs H11 UNS T20811 Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A section of pipe in a hydrocarbon pipeline was found to be leaking. The pipeline was installed several decades earlier and was protected by an external coating of extruded polyethylene and a cathodic protection system. The failed pipe section was made from API 5L X46 line pipe steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... coated and lined steel pipe, generally not susceptible to graphitic corrosion, were suggested as suitable replacement materials, and cathodic protection was also considered as a possibility. Galvanic corrosion Graphitization Piping Gray iron Dealloying/selective leaching A 25.4 cm (10 in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... latter causes flake-like spalling. Measures to prevent SCC include stress reduction, use of austenitic steels or nickel alloys not susceptible to grain boundary attack, use of ferritic chromium steels, surface slag removal, control of temperature and chloride concentration, and cathodic protection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... their entire length to provide cathodic protection. Chemical processing equipment Pipelines Underground corrosion 304L UNS S30403 Galvanic corrosion One of five underground drain lines intended to carry a highly acidic effluent from a chemical-processing plant to distant holding tanks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... success. Attempts have been made to reduce or prevent cavitation damage by the application of cathodic protection, and this has been found to be effective in certain instances of trouble on propellers. Diesel engines Cast iron Cavitation wear The rapid wastage, leading to ultimate failure, of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (MFL) inspection, ultrasonic testing (UT), and evaluation of the external cathodic protection (CP) system were used in the failure analysis. The corrosion products were analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The failure is attributed to the ingress of water and its impoundment under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... protection was supplemented with cathodic protection using rectifiers. Additional rectifiers were added in 1978. Using the ruptured pipeline section and the several fragments as patterns, paper replicas of these pieces were cut and then reassembled, as shown in Figure 1 . All fractured surfaces were then...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... include painting (coatings), inhibition, and cathodic or anodic protection. The service life of the affected component can normally be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy, and catastrophic failures can be avoided. Localized corrosion, such as crevice and pitting corrosion, intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... available aluminum text fixtures, with 300-series stainless steel, and then with titanium. No failures occurred in aluminum fixtures (apparently it provided cathodic protection). Failures in stainless steel fixtures occurred at the specimen pin areas, not at the sharp notches used to initiate stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 21 , 22 ), can provide a source of nutrients for microbial growth. Cathodic hydrogen formed on a metal surface ( Eq 3 ) by active corrosion or by cathodic protection (CP) can specifically promote growth of organisms, including SRB that are able to use hydrogen in their metabolism ( Ref 23 ). Severe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract In January 1965, a Reaction Control System (RCS) pressure vessel (titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V) on an Apollo spacecraft cracked in six adjacent locations. It used N2O4 for vehicle attitude control through roll, pitch, and yaw engines, and was protected from the N2O4 by a Teflon positive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., using ferrous fasteners to join more noble metals such as copper alloys. In this case, galvanic corrosion and the size effect are involved, as described below. For a structure to be well designed, the anode or corroding-metal area should be large relative to the cathode or protected metal in order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... current density of the cathode, it tends to not polarize. Therefore, the cathode to anode potential difference remains great and thus the high corrosion rate at the anode is maintained. However, cathodic protection (CP) can help retard or prevent the onset of pitting and reduce the rate of growth of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... schedules. Preventive techniques include painting (coatings), inhibition, and cathodic or anodic protection. The service life of the affected component can typically be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy, and catastrophic failures can be avoided. Localized corrosion, such as crevice and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... enough abrasion to maintain a rust- and scale-free pipe surface. In this condition, however, the pipe should be protected from corrosion by inhibitors and/or deaeration. This would eliminate the need for unnecessary size reduction. Cathodic protection is a useful method for protecting short sections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... galvanic corrosion and cause severe dissolution of the more active metal. The reverse situation—large anodic areas coupled to small cathodic areas—produces very little galvanic current. This is why imperfections or holidays in protective coatings may lead to severe galvanic corrosion in the localized...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... aggravate galvanic corrosion and cause severe dissolution of the more active metal. The reverse situation—large anodic areas coupled to small cathodic areas—produces very little galvanic current. This is why imperfections or holidays in protective coatings may lead to severe galvanic corrosion in the...