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Carbon dioxide

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... carbon dioxide dissolved in water condensed from the gas stream, with organic acids possibly an aggravating factor. A gas analysis showed no other corrosive agents. No metallurgical or fabrication defects were found in the carbon steel part. The mode of attack was corrosion-erosion, caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
.... It was concluded that pitting corrosion was a result of the corrosive waters supplied by the local water utility. Waters could be rendered non-pitting by increasing their pH to 8 or higher and neutralizing the free carbon dioxide. pH Water chemistry Water pipelines Copper pipe Pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... that localized turbulence is obviated. Degassing and cleansing of the water also would reduce the danger of erosion particularly in the case of softened water, which takes up oxygen and carbon dioxide very readily thus becoming particularly aggressive. Corrosion products Hot water heating Pipe Soldered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (manganese bronze). The bolts and nuts were made of copper alloy C46400 (naval brass, uninhibited). The water that was circulated through the tower had high concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and chloramines. Analysis (visual inspection, bend tests, fractographs, 50x unetched micrographs, 100x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Dezincification is a particular form of corrosive attack which may occur in a variety of environments and to which some brasses are susceptible. It is favored by waters having a high oxygen, carbon dioxide, or chloride content, and is accelerated by elevated temperatures and low water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... another class of CSPVs. One of these vessels, used as carbon dioxide adsorber and operating at −130°C, had failed catastrophically through a crack in its domed head some two years previously. A failure analysis report ( 4 ) attributed the failure largely to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), but no fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., on the air side, all the pipes were smooth. Fig. 1 View of recuperator pipes from Groups 1, 2 and 3 (top to bottom). 1 2 × Chemical analysis of the pipes yielded the data shown in Table 1 . In the case of the pipes in Groups 1 and 2 the carbon content is much higher than specified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... conditions in the HAZ and aggravated the SCC. A CO 2 absorber is used to remove CO 2 from the process gas so the gas can be reused in the chemical plant. Carbon dioxide is removed by passing it through a solution ( Table 1 ) flowing downward from the top of the vessel ( Fig. 1 ). The process gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The presence of these and other constituents indicated that effluent from steel mills upstream was the source of most of the solids found in the tubes. A greenish nodule was analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The major compound was copper carbonate hydroxide [CuCO 3 ·Cu(OH) 2 ]. This compound would be expected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... pressure hot water or steam. In addition, entrained gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide serve to aggravate the attack. Analysis of the header and tube materials showed them to be basically 90/10 copper nickel alloys for which the use of a phosphorus bearing brazing alloy is not recommended owing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... and decarburizing environment at the metal surface—a result mainly of reactions between water and carbon, which produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and between carbon, carbon monoxide, and oxygen, which produce carbon dioxide. The strongly decarburizing effect of moist hydrogen explains the observed carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Dezincification is a particular form of corrosive attack which may occur in a variety of environments and to which some brasses are susceptible. It is favoured by waters having a high oxygen, carbon dioxide, or chloride content, and is accelerated by elevated temperatures and low water velocities...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-40Zn 80Cu-20Zn 70Cu-30Zn Dealloying/selective leaching Dezincification is a particular form of corrosive attack which may occur in a variety of environments and to which some brasses are susceptible. It is favoured by waters having a high oxygen, carbon dioxide, or chloride content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... using a low-carbon steel filler wire (0.04C-1.15Mn-0.50Si) and a shielding gas containing 75% argon and 25% carbon dioxide. Preheating and postheating were not used, nor was the rebuilt surface nondestructively tested for cracks. The shaft was remachined to size, and a new keyway was cut in a different...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... N06601 Intergranular fracture Steam reforming of natural gas is considered the most economic process for industrial hydrogen production. By this process, a mixture of methane and steam forms hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide while flowing through a catalyst bed. Steam reforming...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... dioxide produced in an oxidizing environment is less corrosive than carbon monoxide, CO, which is the prevalent carbonaceous gaseous species in a reducing environment. Under simultaneous oxidizing and carburizing conditions, where hydrocarbons are present in the gas stream and/or with the introduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... are relatively low pressure and low temperature, and they produce water as well as hydrocarbons. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide are also common constituents of the produced fluids. The pipe was obtained from a distributor to replace an old string in a well. The well was a hydraulically jet pumped well...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by loose deposits of dirt and scale and by stagnant conditions. Water with high concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide is a common pitting agent for copper. In any event, it is apparent that, for pitting to occur, the surface must be wet. In general, pitting usually consists of a small number of deep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the base metal (425 HK). Firing conditions, which include a short, high temperature (1800–2800C) and high pressure pulse (40–50 ksi) combined with a reducing carbonaceous atmosphere of methane and carbon dioxide, appear to be responsible for producing the white-etching layer. The high heat and pressure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... residual stresses as being primarily responsible. Tests carried out tend to suggest that stress relief was not carried out. For the replacement plant, consideration of stress relieving or the use of an alternative material was advised. Absorbers (equipment) Carbon dioxide Monoethanolamine Stress...