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Brittle fracture

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... become the preferred path of crack growth. The article describes in more detail some typical mechanisms that cause IG fracture. It discusses the causes and effects of IG brittle cracking, dimpled IG fracture, IG fatigue, hydrogen embrittlement, and IG stress-corrosion cracking. The article presents a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article briefly reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including discussion on mixed-mode cracking. Factors associated with overload failures are discussed, and, where appropriate, preventive steps for reducing the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Two examples involved brittle fracture promoted by small fatigue cracks owing to welding deficiencies. Other parts involving inadequate welding were a ski-wheel axle flange, ski fitting (brackets), and undercarriage shock strut stub assembly. In an attach fitting for an engine mount...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... keyway. Crack growth was rapid once the crack had initiated, causing brittle fracture to occur. Forgings Rolls Sleeves 440A UNS S44002 Brittle fracture A roll manufacturer had successfully used the following procedure for many years to make roll assemblies: a sleeve, or hoop, forged from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... brittle intergranular phase, resulting in failure by brittle fracture at low impact loads during handling and storage. Recommendation included manufacture of the pipe with aluminized instead of galvanized steel sheet for the combustion chamber. Galvanized steels Heating equipment Intermetallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... found during chemical analysis. It was revealed by examination of the ends of the failed cross member that a rotational force that had been applied on the cross member caused it to fracture near the sling body. It was concluded that brittle fracture at the weld was caused by overloading which was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of the intrados. Cranes Semi-killed steel Brittle fracture During the lifting of a piece of machinery by means of an overhead travelling crane the hook fractured suddenly, resulting in serious injury to one of the workmen. The load was attached to the hook by means of fibre rope slings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... chains were retempered to a hardness of 302 to 375 HRB as a corrective measure and subsequently ordered chains had this hardness as a requirement. Brinell hardness Cranes Notch sensitivity Alloy steel Brittle fracture Over a 1-year period, chain-link fractures occurred in many of several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... smooth texture, the fracture was brightly crystalline indicative of a brittle failure. Microscopic examination showed the material was a low-carbon steel in the normalized condition; no abnormal features were observed. The basic cause of failure was the presence of a fatigue crack at the change of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... than its mounts and would contract onto them. Brittle fracture of the brake drum occurred as a result of thermal contraction of the drum web against the clutch mount and the disk. The ID of the drum web was enlarged sufficiently to allow for clearance between the web and the clutch mount and disk at a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... other surface imperfections. Electric motors Stress concentration Thermal stresses 1151 UNS G11510 Brittle fracture (Other, general, or unspecified) processing-related failures Splined rotor shafts like that shown in Fig. 1 were used on small electric motors. It was found that one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0045992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... instead of the specified 55 to 60 HRC. Thus, the poppet failed by brittle fracture, and cracking occurred across nonmetallic inclusions. Recommendation was to redesign the valve with the poppet material changed to 4140 steel, hardened, and tempered to 50 to 55 HRC. Hardness Nonmetallic inclusions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... conclusions that brittle fracture of the flange from the body was the result of overload caused by misalignment between the flange and the roll holder. The microstructure contained graphite flakes of excessive size and inclusions in critical areas; however, these metallurgical imperfections did not appear to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the defect had a hardness of 36 to 40 HRC. Small cracks or fissures were also evident within the defect. Thus, the rings failed in brittle fracture as the result of an arc strike (or burn) on the surface of the ring. At the site of the arc strike, a small region of hard, brittle untempered martensite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on a star-tracking telescope, fractured transversely across two rivet holes closest to one edge of the pin retainer in a completely brittle manner. Comparison with a non-failed strap using microscopic examination, spectrographic analysis, and slow-bend tests showed that both fit the 410 stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... broken off with hammer blows. The fracture surface was duplex in nature, there being an annular region surrounding a central zone, which suggests that the fracture developed in two stages. Microscopic examination confirmed that the fracture was of the brittle type. The shaft material showed a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and microscopic and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that both hinge tabs on the clamp half fractured in a brittle manner as the result of gross overheating, or burning, during forging. The mechanical properties of the metal, especially toughness and ductility, were greatly reduced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... showed a brittle appearance at the fractures. Micrograph examination of an etched section disclosed several small cracks. Fracture of the parts may have occurred through similar cracks. Also observed was a burned layer approximately 0.075 mm (0.003 in.) deep on the latch surface, and hardness at a depth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... portion of the heat-treating cycle and tempering in the salt pot used for quenching, immediately after quenching. Forgings Quench cracking Rocket casings D6ac Heat treating-related failures Brittle fracture The rocket-motor case shown in Fig. failed during proof-pressure testing...