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Brittle fracture

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... become the preferred path of crack growth. The article describes in more detail some typical mechanisms that cause IG fracture. It discusses the causes and effects of IG brittle cracking, dimpled IG fracture, IG fatigue, hydrogen embrittlement, and IG stress-corrosion cracking. The article presents a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article briefly reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including discussion on mixed-mode cracking. Factors associated with overload failures are discussed, and, where appropriate, preventive steps for reducing the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... brittle intergranular phase, resulting in failure by brittle fracture at low impact loads during handling and storage. Recommendation included manufacture of the pipe with aluminized instead of galvanized steel sheet for the combustion chamber. Galvanized steels Heating equipment Intermetallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract A section from a stop-block guide fell to the floor on a crane runway after it failed. A brittle crystalline-type break was disclosed by examination of the fracture surface. The point of initiation was in a hardened heat-affected layer that had developed during flame cutting and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... Blooms Brittle fracture Chain links Overheating Reheating 2%Cr austenitic manganese steel Brittle fracture Casting-related failures The chain link shown in Fig. 1(a) , a part of a mechanism for transferring hot or cold steel blooms into and out of a reheating furnace, broke after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... found during chemical analysis. It was revealed by examination of the ends of the failed cross member that a rotational force that had been applied on the cross member caused it to fracture near the sling body. It was concluded that brittle fracture at the weld was caused by overloading which was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of the intrados. Cranes Semi-killed steel Brittle fracture During the lifting of a piece of machinery by means of an overhead travelling crane the hook fractured suddenly, resulting in serious injury to one of the workmen. The load was attached to the hook by means of fibre rope slings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... chains were retempered to a hardness of 302 to 375 HRB as a corrective measure and subsequently ordered chains had this hardness as a requirement. Brinell hardness Cranes Notch sensitivity Alloy steel Brittle fracture Over a 1-year period, chain-link fractures occurred in many of several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... smooth texture, the fracture was brightly crystalline indicative of a brittle failure. Microscopic examination showed the material was a low-carbon steel in the normalized condition; no abnormal features were observed. The basic cause of failure was the presence of a fatigue crack at the change of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... than its mounts and would contract onto them. Brittle fracture of the brake drum occurred as a result of thermal contraction of the drum web against the clutch mount and the disk. The ID of the drum web was enlarged sufficiently to allow for clearance between the web and the clutch mount and disk at a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... direction in which the fracture developed, as indicated by the radial lines on its surface, it was evident that a preexisting defect served to initiate the brittle fracture. Material adjacent to the fracture was decarburized and contained numerous globules of oxide and slag. It was evident, therefore that a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-stress levels after welding. Lamellar tearing Pressure vessels Strain aging Welded joints ASTM A201 Grade B Joining-related failures Brittle fracture A spherical carbon steel fixed-catalyst bed reactor failed after 20 years of service while in a standby condition ( Fig. 1 ). At the time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... have been subjected to periodical annealing in accordance with Statutory requirements, which would have restored the ductility of the surface material. Chains Optical microscopy Wrought iron Brittle fracture While a chain sling having a safe working load of 30 cwts. was being used to lift...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract A forged alloy steel arm of a lifting fork with an approximate cross section of 150 x 240 mm (5.92 x 9.45 in.) fractured after only a short service life on a lift truck. The fracture surface had the appearance of a fracture originating from a surface crack. Analysis (visual inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract After several years' use, an eyebolt suffered brittle fracture in the first turn of the thread. The fracture started at the notch at the root of the thread. Neither localized material defect nor an old crack were present. The investigation showed that instead of the specified steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... value in excess of the yield point within the delay time of the material so when the fracture was initiated, it was preceded by several microcracks giving rise to the propagation of a brittle fracture. Alternators Loads (forces) Notch sensitivity Stress concentration Turbines EN9 Brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A 150 cm ID boiler drum made form ASTM A515, grade 70, steel failed during final hydrotesting at a pressure of approximately 26 MPa. Brittle fractures were revealed in between two SA-106C nozzles and remainder was found to involve tearing. Short, flat segments of fracture area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0047220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., reheated to 870 deg C (1600 deg F), and oil quenched. The larger gear should be tempered to 200 to 240 HRB, and the smaller gear to 240 to 280 HRB. Gears Materials selection Oil pumps Residual stress 100-70-03 Class 40 UNS F34800 UNS F12801 Casting-related failures Brittle fracture The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Brittle fracture Casting-related failures The gun mount used for two types of self-propelled artillery (175 mm guns and 205 mm howitzers) involved a recoil cylinder and a sand-cast ductile-iron piston containing orifices through which oil was forced in order to absorb the recoil energy of the gun. A...