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Blistering

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract The interior of a cylindrical tank used for the road transport of concentrated sulfuric acid revealed severe blistering of the plates, mainly over the crown and more particularly on the first ring. The tank, made in 1958, was of welded construction, the material being mild steel plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... material, and those that exhibited a dual failure. The last category failed in the adhesive bond and also showed a type of pitting on one face of the base material. In a third case, a 2024-T4 extrusion section was found to exhibit blistering after chemical milling. The presence of interconnecting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... blisters almost over its entire perimeter in agreement with the ultrasonic test results. Only the weld seam and a strip on each side of it were crack-free. Based on this investigation, the pipeline was taken out of service and reconstructed. To avoid such failures in the future, two preventative measures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the classification of hydrogen damage. Some specific types of the damage are hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen, hydrogen attack, and cracking from hydride formation. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... failure. First section showed strong pit or trench-like attack in the welding seam on the inner surface. A bluish-black corrosion product adhered to the pits. The second section showed small blisters at the welding seam. The metallographic examination of the first section showed welding seam was strongly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract This paper describes the investigation of a corrosion failure of bottom plates on an aboveground tank used for the storage of potable water. The tank was internally inspected for the first time after six years of service. Paint blisters and rust spots were observed on the bottom plates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... coalescence in the center. The improper baking after electroplating of the screw led to H2-induced blistering/cracking. The high strength of the threaded region of the adjusting screw increased the failure propensity. Electroplating 16MnCr5 DIN 17210 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the sections there was a transverse crack along the edge of a 6.4 mm ( 1 4 in.) diameter pitted area. Two adjacent areas were raised, resembling blisters, and also had transverse cracks along their edges. The cracks were irregular and had penetrated completely through the tube wall. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... baking were noted to vary from 3 to 11 hours. Fig. 1 Cracking of the eye end portion near the radius, at × 0.75. Macroexamination revealed numerous tiny blisters all over the bright chrome plated piston rod surface. On examination under stereoscopic microscope, fracture showed identically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... crack initiation zone, cracking was intergranular. This region also exhibited blisters around inclusions. Microcracks emanating from inclusion sites and decohesion of inclusion/matrix interfaces were also noticed. These features are characteristic of hydrogen embrittlement ( Ref 9 , 10 ). According...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... article as: Hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen-induced blistering Cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen Hydrogen attack Cracking from hydride formation Table 1 Specific types of hydrogen damage Specific damage process/mechanism Most common in Comments...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... small blisters were observed on the inner surface near the weld after attempts had been made to repair the crack. Fig. 1 Vessel made of ASTM A204, grade C, steel that failed as the result of hydrogen embrittlement. (a) Portion of tank; Detail A shows locations of cracks, at welds joining shell to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... in the manner experienced. The effect of the air gap is comparable with that of a lamination in a furnace plate; heat transfer is restricted, the material on the fire-side of the defect suffers overheating and creep occurs giving rise to blistering, accompanied in many instances by cracking of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... longitudinal sections were made through the planes designated as 6, 7, 8 and 9 in Fig. 4 . They confirmed that welding caused complete melting of certain spots of the shaft tubing causing blistered or shrinkage cavities in the solidified area ( Fig. 5 ). The blue spot in the fracture may possibly be due to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... graph of tungsten inclusion Entrapped hydrogen can expand during subsequent heat treatment, leaving voids (blisters) and distorting the metal ( Fig. 34 ). Fig. 34 (a) Protrusions on machined surface of 2024 aluminum after heat treatment. Original magnification: 16×. (b) Section of 2024...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... lower shank. Further examination of surfaces near the failure revealed evidence of corrosion pits and machining marks. A representative macrograph of the fracture surface of the failed bolt is shown in Fig. 3 . The cadmium plating circumventing the fracture was blistered and worn away entirely in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the cathodic process. The evolved gas causes the newly deposited layer of plating to be pushed up and away from the rest of the casting, producing a blister or blemish directly over the pore. However, there are many other things that can cause plating blemishes, including contaminants in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... were shipped to Charleston, S.C. One unit was shipped to Corpus Christi, Tex. In October 1976, the Navy notified the client of deterioration of the aluminum-plywood panels. Deterioration was in the form of blistering of the surface paint, bubbling and delamination of the aluminum from the plywood...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... particles of UO 2 . The propagation stage is characterized by the growth of a blister at the pinhole. Once swelling starts, the blister grows at a fairly steady rate until the accumulated uranium oxide causes the cladding to split. After the cladding splits, the UO 2 is released into the water and a larger...