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Blistering

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract The interior of a cylindrical tank used for the road transport of concentrated sulfuric acid revealed severe blistering of the plates, mainly over the crown and more particularly on the first ring. The tank, made in 1958, was of welded construction, the material being mild...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... by cracks or blisters almost over its entire perimeter in agreement with the ultrasonic test results. Only the weld seam and a strip on each side of it were crack-free. Based on this investigation, the pipeline was taken out of service and reconstructed. To avoid such failures in the future, two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... material, and those that exhibited a dual failure. The last category failed in the adhesive bond and also showed a type of pitting on one face of the base material. In a third case, a 2024-T4 extrusion section was found to exhibit blistering after chemical milling. The presence of interconnecting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract This paper describes the investigation of a corrosion failure of bottom plates on an aboveground tank used for the storage of potable water. The tank was internally inspected for the first time after six years of service. Paint blisters and rust spots were observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for cause of failure. First section showed strong pit or trench-like attack in the welding seam on the inner surface. A bluish-black corrosion product adhered to the pits. The second section showed small blisters at the welding seam. The metallographic examination of the first section showed welding seam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and microvoid coalescence in the center. The improper baking after electroplating of the screw led to H2-induced blistering/cracking. The high strength of the threaded region of the adjusting screw increased the failure propensity. Electroplating 16MnCr5 DIN 17210 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the classification of hydrogen damage. Some specific types of the damage are hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen, hydrogen attack, and cracking from hydride formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Not relevant for impact-induced cracking Hydrogen-induced blistering Low-strength steels at ambient temperatures Hydrogen forms gas-filled blisters Cracking from precipitation of internal gaseous hydrogen Heavy steel sections Induced by high-temperature exposure followed by rapid cooling Hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of corrosion; however, on one of the sections there was a transverse crack along the edge of a 6.4 mm ( 1 4 in.) diameter pitted area. Two adjacent areas were raised, resembling blisters, and also had transverse cracks along their edges. The cracks were irregular and had penetrated completely through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and metallographic evidence clearly indicated that the failure started at the area of lack of penetration in the weld and propagated in a brittle manner. In the crack initiation zone, cracking was intergranular. This region also exhibited blisters around inclusions. Microcracks emanating from inclusion sites...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... between plating and baking were noted to vary from 3 to 11 hours. Fig. 1 Cracking of the eye end portion near the radius, at × 0.75. Macroexamination revealed numerous tiny blisters all over the bright chrome plated piston rod surface. On examination under stereoscopic microscope, fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., pits, blisters, and scabs Chemical Segregation Ingot Pipe, Porosity, and Centerline Shrinkage High Hydrogen Content Nonmetallic Inclusions Other Ingot-Related Imperfections Primary Reduction Flaws Various terms are used to describe surface and subsurface imperfections in wrought...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with tungsten inclusion. Kroll’s etch. (b) Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy graph of tungsten inclusion Entrapped hydrogen can expand during subsequent heat treatment, leaving voids (blisters) and distorting the metal ( Fig. 34 ). Fig. 34 (a) Protrusions on machined surface of 2024 aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... small blisters were observed on the inner surface near the weld after attempts had been made to repair the crack. Fig. 1 Vessel made of ASTM A204, grade C, steel that failed as the result of hydrogen embrittlement. (a) Portion of tank; Detail A shows locations of cracks, at welds joining shell...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... Deterioration was in the form of blistering of the surface paint, bubbling and delamination of the aluminum from the plywood, and cracks in the aluminum. All towers exhibited the same phenomena, on both the interior and exterior. The Navy demanded the client take action to repair the damage. At this point...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or blistering. Blistering is most often associated with the melting or heat treatment of aluminum, where reaction with water vapor produces hydrogen. Blistering due to hydrogen is frequently associated with grain-boundary precipitates or the formation of small voids. Blister formation in aluminum is different...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is an unpredictable length. There is generally absence of any significant swelling, but occasional bubbles of hydrogen may be evolved, and the pinhole in the aluminum may be discolored by small particles of UO 2 . The propagation stage is characterized by the growth of a blister at the pinhole. Once swelling starts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the susceptibility of aluminum to hydrogen damage. Hydrogen damage in aluminum alloys may take the form of IG or transgranular cracking or blistering. Blistering is most often associated with the melting or heat treatment of aluminum, in which reaction with water vapor produces hydrogen. Blistering due to hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that is designed and constructed to recognized codes and standards. This standard includes numerous sections on assessment procedures for calculating the impact of damage mechanisms such as general metal loss and local metal loss, blisters and laminations, weld misalignment and shell distortion, cracklike flaws...