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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... on each part. The 4817 NiMo alloy steel pinion showed no indication of additional cracking, nor did the 4820 NiMo alloy steel gear. The mode of failure was tooth bending fatigue with the origin at the designed position: root radius at midsection of tooth. The load was well centered, and progression...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract On attempting to manipulate or bend a boiler tube some 22 ft. long, sudden failure occurred at what appeared to be a butt weld in the tube. Externally, the weld reinforcement had been ground flush and the entire tube surface painted. Internally, the appearance and width...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., but exceptionally high copper content was noticeable. Microstructural examination showed the damage was due to overheating and burning during preheating and bending. Furthermore, crack formation was promoted by precipitation of metallic copper that had penetrated into the austenitic grain boundaries under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0092142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... A curved member called a slat track ( Fig. 1 ), which supported the extendable portion of the leading edge of the wing on a military aircraft, failed by bending at one end after very short service. It was estimated that the slat track, fabricated from heat treated 4140 steel, had undergone only one high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... The bolts should be tightened according to the specifications of the manufacturer, and the system should be periodically inspected for correct tightness. Bending fatigue Forgings Structural bolts Structural steel Fatigue fracture A portion of a large (19-mm, or 0.75-in., diam) structural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... occurred in the shaft portion at the intersection of a 1.3 cm thick wall and a tapered surface at the bottom of the hole. The fatigue crack was influenced by one-way bending stresses initiated at the inner surface and progressed around the entire inner circumference. A heavily decarburized layer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was deduced by measurement checks. The presence of broken wire ends, which indicated that the rope failed by fatigue, was revealed by reverse bending of the section of the rope which was normally subjected to this flexing. It was found that minimum sheave diam for a 13-mm 18 x 7 wire rope was 43 cm and hence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0091092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... hub. Investigation (visual inspection, inspection records review, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and fractography) supported the conclusion that the fracture mode for both shafts was low-cycle rotating-bending fatigue initiating and propagating by combined torsional and reverse bending...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract Two A6 tool steel (free machining grade) shafts, parts of a clamping device used for bending 5.7 cm OD tubing on an 8.6 cm radius, failed simultaneously under a maximum clamping force of 54,430 kg. The shaft was imposed with cyclic tensile stresses due to the clamping force...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... was tooth bending fatigue of the gear from the reverse direction near the toe end. The cause of failure was a crossed-over tooth bearing condition that placed loads at the heel end when going forward and at the toe end when going in reverse. The condition was too consistent to be a deflection under load...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A return bend (made from ASTM A213, grade T11, ferritic steel) from a triolefin-unit heater ruptured after two years in service. The unit operated at 2410 kPa, with a hydrocarbon feed stream (85% propylene) entering at 260 to 290 deg C and leaving at 425 to 480 deg C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract After being in service for ten years, two admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a cooler in a refinery catalytic reforming unit cracked circumferentially in the area of U-bends. A blunt transgranular cracking with minimal branching propagating from the inside surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A resistance-welded carbon steel superheater tube made to ASME SA-276 specifications failed by pitting corrosion and subsequent perforation, which caused the tube to leak. The perforation was found to have occurred at a low point in a bend near the superheater outlet header...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Original carbon steel and subsequent replacement austenitic stainless steel superheater tube U-bend failures occurred in a waste heat boiler. The carbon steel tubes had experienced metal wastage in the form of caustic corrosion gouging, while the stainless steel tubes failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract An investigation was conducted to determine why 16 out of 139 pipe bends cracked during hot induction bending. The pipe conformed to API 5L X65 PSL2 line pipe standards and measured 1016 mm (40 in.) in diam with a wall thickness of 18.5 mm. A metallurgical cross section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., in the horizontal and vertical planes during the testing. The fracture was revealed to have occurred in bend 2. An indentation, presumably caused by the bending tool during forming, at the inner surface of the bend where fracture occurred was revealed by microscopic examination. Spiral marks produced on springs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... The shaft surface both near and in the keyways indicated fretting which greatly reduced the fatigue limit of the shaft metal and initiated fatigue cracks. Fatigue marks were observed on the fractured key. Repetitive impact loading was responsible for propagation of the cracks. The high cyclic bending...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Rupture occurred at a bend in a superheated steam transfer line between a header and a desuperheater of a boiler producing 230 t/h of steam at 540 deg C and 118 kPa. The boiler had operated for 77,000 h. Rupture occurred along the outer bend radius of the 168 mm diam tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the permanent deflection of the tray handles that had occurred in the failed tray. Full distortion of the handles was obtained experimentally only by dropping a full hot tray on its end onto the floor. The test results indicated that the tray had slipped from the hand of the user. Bending Deflection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract An SB407 alloy 800H tube failed at a 100 deg bend shortly after startup of a new steam superheater. Three bends failed and one bend remote from the failure area was examined. Visual examination showed that the fracture started on the outside surface along the inside radius...