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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Stainless steel liners (AISI type 321) used in bellows-type expansion joints in a duct assembly installed in a low-pressure nitrogen gas system failed in service. The duct assembly consisted of two expansion joints connected by a 32 cm (12 in.) OD pipe of ASTM A106 grade B steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract Within the first few months of operation of an 8 km (5 mile) long 455 mm (18 in.) diam high-pressure steam line between a coal-fired electricity-generating plant and a paper mill, several of the Inconel 600 bellows failed. The steam line operated at 6030 kPa (875 psi) and 420 deg C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The secondary cooling water system pressure boundary of Savannah River Site reactors includes expansion joints utilizing a thin-wall bellows. While successfully used for over thirty years, an occasional replacement has been required because of the development of small, circumferential...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Several articulated bellows of 10 in. ID developed leakage from the convolutions after a service life of some 18 months. One of the units received from examination showed cracking at the crown of a convolution and at the attachment weld to the pipe. Sectioning of the bellows revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 1 Dimensional details of the AM350 bellows. Dimensions are given in millimeters. Dimensional details of the AM350 bellows. Dimensions are given in millimeters. Fig. 2 Optical micrographs showing weld profiles and extent of fusion Fig. 3 Optical micrograph showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Results of chemical analysis Table 1 Results of chemical analysis Element Composition, wt% Bellows Chemical requirements for AISI 347 stainless steel Carbon 0.076 0.08 max Chromium 17.8 17–19 Nickel 9.4 9–13 Manganese 1.34 2.00 max Silicon 0.85 1.00 max...
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 3 Sectioned tube at flange-to-bellows joint (bellows at left) More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 General view of bellows showing axial and circumferential cracking. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Macrograph showing cracking adjacent to weld securing bellows to steam piping (× 5 1 2 ). More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Duct assembly of medium-carbon steels in which welded bellows liners of type 321 stainless steel fractured in fatigue. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches). (b) Light fractograph showing fracture origin (top edge). 30x More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Photograph of the failed Inconel 600 bellows. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Metallographic cross section of the failed bellows shown in Fig. 1 . Note the intergranular nature of the failure. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 SEM fractograph of the failed Inconel 600 bellows. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Crack morphology provided the clue in a type 304 stainless bellows failure. Chloride stress-corrosion cracking (right) was suspected but the actual cracks more closely resembled those caused by caustic stress corrosion (left). More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 2 Inside view of outer end of connector where the bellows fractured. More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 3 Portion of the bellows containing the fracture. More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 1 SEM fractograph of the fractured face of the bellows, showing grain facets and secondary microcracks. 150×. More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 4 (a) Micrograph of the bellows material showing excessive titanium-base stringers. Compare with (b). Unetched. 126×. (b) Micrograph of a sample taken from a type 321 stainless steel sheet, showing relatively clean material. Unetched. 158×. (c) Typical microstructure in the longitudinal More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 4 Partial circumferential fracture in expansion bellows. Arrows indicate partial tearing along intake end. More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 12 Fracture surface of expansion bellows, showing fatigue striations (arrows). More