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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Axle test results Table 1 Axle test results Axle test Axle type Rim radius, mm Rim alloy Axle diameter, mm Failure load, N Button dents, mm 2 Bearing dents, mm 2 Rim damage Bent axle 1 Semi-float 222 Al 41.1 61,110 17 6.4 Little Yes 2 Semi-float 222 Al 41.1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An automobile manufacturer rejected several 1035 steel stub axles because of what appeared to be short longitudinal cracks in the surfaces of the pins. The cracks were found when six axles were examined for defects by magnetic-particle inspection. However, metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a background of friction-bearing failures due to overheating. The failures of locomotive axles caused by overheated traction-motor support bearings are discussed. The article also describes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in steel. It examines the results...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 a: Fractured main landing gear truck beam with axles. b: Overview of the fracture surface, the semicircular stress corrosion crack can be seen at bottom just right of centre (arrow) and a corroded area at inside top. c: Overview of the semicircular stress corrosion crack zone, the arrow More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Fractured main landing gear truck beam with axles as received. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 3 The test axles failed in the flange radius More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract An axle shaft in an open-pit mining truck hauling overburden failed after operating for 27,000 h. Previous failures had resulted from longitudinal shear, but this had not, bringing material quality into question. Chemical analysis verified that the part was SAE4340 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract One end of an axle shaft containing the integral spur pinion was submitted for examination, along with the report of a tooth pitting failure. The spur pinion, integral to the axle shaft, operated in a medium-size, off-highway truck at an open-pit mine, for “a relatively short time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Fig. 1 Failed light truck axle, with bearing retainer nut. Fig. 2 Unfailed axle, bearing retainer nut removed. Fig. 3 Wheel mounting flange and stub end of failed axle. Fig. 4 Chevron fracture patterns on flat fracture on perimeter adjacent to the keyway (bottom...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... view on the vicinity of oil-pressed hole Abstract A cylindrical spiral gear, part of a locomotive axle assembly, cracked ten days after it had been press-fit onto a shaft, after which it sat in place as other repairs were made. Workers at the locomotive shop reported hearing a sound, and upon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract A stepped drive axle (hardened and tempered resulfurized 4150 steel forging) used in a high-speed electric overhead crane (rated at 6800 kg, or 7 tons, and handling about 220 lifts/day with each lift averaging 3625 to 5440 kg, or 4 to 6 tons) broke after 15 months of service. Visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Fig. 1 As-received failed axle surfaces. Fig. 3 Macrograph of failed surface, showing beach marks caused by fatigue. 0.76×. Fig. 4 Macrograph taken transversely showing a crack starting in the white martensitic area and proceeding through the HAZ to the parent metal. Nital...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract A supplementary axle, which was used as an extension to a highway-trailer tractor to increase its load-bearing capacity, failed in service. The rolled steel channel extensions that secured the axle assembly to the tractor main-frame I-beams fractured transversely, with the crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Liquid copper Locomotive axles ASTM A21 Liquid metal induced embrittlement Failures of locomotive axles have occurred for more than 100 years. These failures are common and often not properly examined with the relevant metallographic tools available. Failures of all types of locomotive axles have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0089551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract A sand-cast medium-carbon steel heavy-duty axle housing, which had been quenched and tempered to about 30 HRC, fractured after almost 5000 h of service. Investigation (0.4x magnification) revealed that the fracture had been initiated by a hot tear that formed during solidification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Two examples involved brittle fracture promoted by small fatigue cracks owing to welding deficiencies. Other parts involving inadequate welding were a ski-wheel axle flange, ski fitting (brackets), and undercarriage shock strut stub assembly. In an attach fitting for an engine mount...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract One main undercarriage axle made of high strength alloy steel was subjected to simulated fatigue test for 6000 h of service. After only 300 h it broke in two along the sharp radius. The fracture revealed a coarse, irregular, and brittle surface before final fracture by thick angular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Abstract A hi-rail device is a vehicle designed to travel both on roads and on rails. In this case, a truck was modified to accept the wheels for rail locomotion. The rear wheel/axle set was attached to the truck frame. Both the front and rear wheel/axle sets were raised by means of a hydraulic...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 2 A schematic drawing of the semi-float axle test set up. The stub axle test was similar except that no suspension was involved More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... understanding of the failure mechanisms and causes, by thorough failure analysis, provides valuable feedback information to designers, operators and maintenance personnel for appropriate corrective actions to be taken. Axles Cylinders Landing gear Maintenance Materials selection Materials selection...