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Atmospheric corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Four tanks made from type 304L stainless steel were removed from storage. Atmospheric corrosion on the outside of the tanks and pitting and crevice corrosion on the inside were visible. Metallographic examination revealed that the internal corrosion had been caused by crevices related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of the aluminum alloy coupling nuts was caused by stress corrosion. Contributing factors included use of a material that is susceptible to this type of failure, sustained tensile stressing in the presence of a marine (chloride-bearing) atmosphere, and an elongated grain structure transverse to the direction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examples. Fatigue fracture in threaded fasteners and fretting in bolted machine parts are also discussed. The article provides a description of the different types of corrosion, such as atmospheric corrosion and liquid-immersion corrosion, in threaded fasteners. It also provides information on stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to be a corrosion layer that resulted from exposure to ammonia in a humid atmosphere. Simulation tests confirmed that ammonia was the corrodent. The ammonia originated from the phenolic molding area of the plant. It was recommended that fumes from molding areas be vented outside the plant and that assembly, storage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... was produced by stress corrosion as the combined result of: residual forming and service stresses; the concentration of tensile stress at outer square corners of the pierced slots; and preferential corrosive attack along the grain boundaries as a result of high humidity and occasional condensation of moisture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... not been carried out as specified. It was recommended that the sheathing material be fully annealed and that the outer surface be pickled and passivated. Electric heating elements Heat-distributing units Marine atmospheres Nuclear reactor components Sheaths 304L UNS S30403 Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... and convection. The heaters were used only a few nights a year and where stored outdoors when not in use. To minimize cost and deterioration from atmospheric corrosion, the heater shells were made of galvanized low-carbon steel sheet about 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) thick. Investigation Visual examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... steel. Where the cracks had not eroded away, it was clear they ran transcrystalline, indicative of stress-corrosion cracking. Because the cracks propagated from the outer surface of the vessel, they were not caused by the derusting agent but by the external atmosphere in conjunction with welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A heat exchanger made of a pipe in which oil was heated from the outside from approximately 90 deg C to 170 deg C, by superheated steam of about 8 to 10 atmospheres had developed a leak at the rolled joint of the pipe and pipe bottom. The pipes were supposed to be made from St 35.29...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking caused by a corrosive atmosphere. Chemical processing equipment Weldments ASTM A294 Stress-corrosion cracking Background Radial cracking occurred adjacent to 11 vanes in a 19-vane ASTM A-294 impeller. The vanes were fillet welded to both the disk...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... indicated severe sensitization in the HAZ due to high heat input during welding. An intergranular corrosion test confirmed the observations. The severe sensitization was coupled with residual stresses and exposure of the assembly to a coastal atmosphere during storage prior to installation. This combination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... cracking. Although copper is not susceptible in the pure state, it is prone to stress-corrosion cracking under tensile stress in the presence of other elements in a damp ammoniacal atmosphere. The material was not defective, but a phosphorus-deoxidized copper type. The residual phosphorus combined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... observed, indicating contamination by rusted carbon steel particles. Liquid penetrant testing was used to determine the extent of the cracks, and in situ metallographic analysis was performed over the cracked region. The morphology of the cracks was indicative of transgranular stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-corrosion cracking beneath the pitted areas on the OD. The likely cause of the cracking was chloride stress corrosion, with chlorides deriving from the marine atmosphere and concentrating under the insulation around the support rings. A complete insulation evaluation, including repair or replacement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Maximum operating temperature 70 °C Minimum design metal temperature 0 °C Design pressure Atmospheric Design vacuum Atmospheric Corrosion allowances  Shell 0 mm  Bottom plates 0 mm  Roof plates 0 mm  Roof framing 0 mm  Wind design per API 650 162 km/h Materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A corrosion resistant chromium nickel steel (X 2 Cr-Ni-Mo 18 10) worm drive used in a chemical plant at 80 deg C and 100 to 200 atm pressure to transport media containing chloride failed during normal operation. Visual inspections showed that the entire surface of the gear was covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... atmosphere. Figure 3 shows in close-up a similar form of attack on a butt joint strap used in a lifting device exposed to an industrial atmosphere. Removal of the corrosion product from surfaces attacked in this manner reveals the characteristic step-like mechanism of the process seen in the illustrations...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Pipe Storage: The use of end caps on these pipes did not go well with outdoor exposure. Any water entering could not escape, resulting in a humid atmosphere inside, with upper pipe temperatures reaching 100 °C in the sun. This resulted in the loss of mill scale and corrosion over More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-corrosion cracking A solution containing 50 to 70% calcium chloride, with a pH value of 7.5 to 8.5, was concentrated by evaporation in a brick-lined vessel by passing steam at a pressure of 15 atmospheres through a system of heating coils made of stainless austenitic steel X 10 CrNiMoTi 18 12 (material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract One-quarter inch diameter 304 stainless steel cooling tower hanger rods failed by chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The rods were located in an area of the cooling tower where the air contains drop lets of water below the mist eliminators and above the flow of water...