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Atmospheric contamination

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., concentric groove created during a press forming operation. It was also determined that atmospheric contamination occurred during the welding of the head, causing embrittlement, which may have also contributed to the failure. Recommendations were made addressing the problems that were observed. golf...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fatigue. A blue etch-anodize inspection showed the presence of an alpha case along the edges of the repair weld. The alpha case, a brittle oxide-enriched layer, forms when welds are inadequately shielded from the atmosphere during deposition. The brittleness of this layer caused transgranular cracks to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... /day. In such a hot, humid, coastal atmosphere, long exposures of stainless steel components containing iron surface contaminants could result in the rusting of iron debris. Such rust particles absorb moisture and chlorides from the humid environment, finally leading to SCC of the components...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract One inch diam Type 304 stainless steel piping was designed to carry containment atmosphere samples to an analyzer to monitor hydrogen and oxygen levels during operational and the design basis accident conditions that are postulated to occur in a boiling water reactor. Only one of six...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... mercury was accidentally introduced into the cylinders during a gas-blending operation through a contaminated blending manifold. Replacement of the contaminated manifold was recommended along with discontinued use of mercury manometers, the original source of mercury contamination. Brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Because of acid formation from the radiolysis of moist air or reaction of surface contaminants with a damp environment, all detector assemblies are operated in an inert (He) atmosphere. They may be either in a partially encapsulated assembly (open to the moderator) or in a fully encapsulated assembly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... contamination occurring in the casting process that became concentrated in the recycled skimmings. It was recommended that future material specifications for skimmings and for externally obtained scrap copper include a trace analysis for tellurium. Cupronickel Embrittlement Segregations Tellurium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracking. One additional weld was found that had been degraded by mercury. A welding team experienced in repairing mercury contaminated piping was recruited to make the repairs. Corrective action included the installation of a sulfur-impregnated charcoal mercury-removal bed and replacement of the aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... abrasive wear may be foreign particles that contaminate the tribological systems. Typical contaminants are particulate matter present in the atmosphere or sand (in both cases the abrasive particles are mainly made of silica, with hardness in the range of 750 to 1200 kg/mm 2 ). Hard abrasive particles can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0006898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...-nickel, solving the SCC problem. Cupronickel Electric fuses, Materials substitution Nickel brasses 59Cu-12Ni-29Zn Stress-corrosion cracking Several fuses, made of nickel silver (57 to 61% Cu, 11 to 13% Ni, bal Zn), exposed in central offices where the air contained industrial atmospheric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... approidmately 270 kg (600 lb) and was highly contaminated ∼100,000 to 400,000 disintegrations per minute, or dpm). The impeller was soaked and hand scrubbed in a solution of hot water and a proprietary solution used in component decontamination. This decontamination method reduced the smearable activity of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... present in the coal or fuel oil burned in different applications. In some situations, these impurities may be ingested from the service environment, for instance, in the case of NaCl contamination from marine atmospheres or the presence of S in the air at some industrial sites. Hot corrosion may be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electron spectroscopy survey spectra obtained from features observed in the secondary-electron image. Point 1: nickel surface; Point 2: nodular feature In some instances, when excessive atmospheric or handling contamination obscures much of the underlying surface of interest, inert gas sputtering...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., compressing air to 5 atmospheres. Failure of the first stage impeller occurred due to a segment from the back plate becoming detached in the manner seen in Fig. 1 . On the remaining portion, cracks were visible running between the holes for the rivets by which the vanes were attached. It is understood that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxides and reacts more readily with chloride salts ( Ref 79 , 80 ). The high solubility is reported for KCl-containing molten salts in oxidizing atmospheres in which soluble potassium chromates form. The higher the nickel content, the higher the corrosion resistance against molten chlorides ( Ref 81...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... some cases, influence the analysis result. It is also important to prevent possible contamination of the specimen before and after removal. Some of the commonly used quantitative chemical analysis techniques for metals are discussed in this article. Further details for these techniques can be found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mercury to wet the weld metal at the root of the weld, and led to LMIE crack propagation. Other mercury-contaminated welds were detected by x-ray radiography and removed, and the mercury absorption material was replaced. A similar failure has been reported in an aluminum alloy piping elbow in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... happens when iron is immersed in water or seawater that is exposed to the atmosphere (a steel pier piling, for example). Corrosion occurs. The anodic reaction is: (Eq 14) Fe → Fe 2 + + 2 e − Because the medium is exposed to the atmosphere, it contains dissolved oxygen. Water and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., hydrogen-induced cracking; SOHIC, stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking; SSC, sulfide stress cracking; AGO, atmospheric gas oil; LVGO, light-vacuum gas oil; HVGO, heavy-vacuum gas oil. Adapted from Ref 6 Examples of components and industries that have experienced SCC failures include (this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cleaning fracture surfaces are: Use the mildest agent possible and take care NOT to alter the original surface. Retain some of the contamination/corrosion product for later analysis. Agitation in an ultrasonic bath can help the cleaning process. Caution: Very soft materials may be damaged by...