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Annealing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Heating elements, consisting of strips, 40 mm x 2 mm, of the widely used 80Ni-20Cr resistance heating alloy, and designed to withstand a temperature of 1175 deg C, were rendered unusable by scaling after a few months service in a through-type annealing furnace, Although the temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... frequently in round wire conveyor belt links because the round wire neither impresses so sharply nor abrades against the cross bars, and it also exerts less torsion than the flat wire. Annealing furnaces Belt conveyors Glass Torsional fatigue Wire Low-carbon steel Fatigue fracture The cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the fracture itself it was completely spheroidized. Therefore the wire was locally annealed at this point. It was likely that the wire cracked at this point during the last drawing and then broke during twisting due to its lower strength in the weakened cross section after prior deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... energy-dispersive analysis of the deposits. It was interpreted by the hardness values (higher than typical for annealed copper tubing) that the tubes may not have been annealed after the U-bends were formed and thus the role of residual stresses in the crack was revealed. It was concluded that the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... surface and up to 40 HRC at the base of the fin midway between the roots which indicated that the fins were cold formed and not subsequently annealed thus susceptible to SCC because of a high residual stress level. It was revealed by metallographic examination that the fracture was predominantly by...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... structural collapse, under elevated temperature service, even at temperatures more than 300 deg C (540 deg F) below the normal solution annealing temperature. The creep strength of the recrystallized 304/304L steel was more than 1000 times less than that achievable with solution annealed 304H. These...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...) Eliminate the grooves; 2) Remove the ferritic bright border; 3) Avoid undercooling in the mold and therefore the formation of granular graphite; 4) Inoculate with finely powdered ferrosilicon into the melt for the same purpose; and, 5) Anneal at lower temperature or eliminate subsequent treatment in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Three radially-cracked disks that circulated the protective gases in a bell-type annealing furnace were examined. During service they had been heated in cycles of 48 h to 720 deg C for 3 h each time, then were kept at temperature for 15 h followed by cooling to 40 deg C in 30 h, while...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0006897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... wire is 2.6 mm (0.102 in.) diam annealed copper, and the clamp assembly must withstand a 2470 N (555 lb) load without breaking or slipping. A number of these clamps, located a few hundred feet from the ocean, have failed. The sharply broken wire indicated to weakening by abrasion. The copper tail wire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... attributed to insufficient component thickness, which made the dashpot unable to withstand internal operating pressure, and to extensive annealing in the heat-affected zones of the brazed joints. It was recommended that the condenser dashpot design take into account the annealing effects of brazing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... straightened for use. Fractography established that fracture occurred by stress-corrosion cracking. The cracks originated at rusted areas on the cladding that occurred under iron particles left on the surface during manufacture. High hardness values indicated that solution annealing following cold working had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... repeatedly. The ruptures did not occur exclusively or even preferentially at the loops, but just as frequently at locations between them. The mistake made in this case was annealing the steel at a temperature in the critical region. This was probably done to relieve stresses that originated during cold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... seen, which turns into the granular annealed structure towards the core. The described structural phenomena were noted in all of the seven fracture regions. Their intensity always decreased with increasing distance from the fracture. Surface decarburization caused the formation of lamellar pearlite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... boss on one side. After annealing, hot spinning, annealing a second time, and tack welding a port fitting, the assembly was torch preheated to 120 to 150 deg C (250 to 300 deg F). The port fitting was then welded in place. Final full heat treatment to the T62 temper was followed by machining, testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... tungsten arc welded tailpipes should be postweld annealed by re-solution treatment to redissolve all particles of carbide in the HAZ. Also, it was suggested that resistance seam welding be used, because there would be no corrosion problem with the faster cooling rate characteristic of this technique...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... fatigue that initiated at the notch created by the intersection of the faying surfaces of the clip and shell with the spot weld nuggets. The 6061 aluminum alloy shell and stiffener were in the annealed (O) temper rather than T6, as specified. Recommendations included heat treating the shell and stiffener...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... attributed to the initial deformation or to straightening, rapid fracture may have been induced by residual stresses contributing to the normal spectrum of cyclic stresses. Recommendations included stress-relief annealing after cold straightening, refinishing of the surface, thus reducing fracturing of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001905
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... confirmed that the component was in the annealed condition and not in the required work-hardened 1/4-hard condition. Bombs (weapons) Retaining bands Equiaxed structure Dimensional measurements 302 UNS S30200 Heat treating related failures Component: MK#15/Mod 6 Snakeye bomb fin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... C (50 to 60 deg F) and outlet temperature was 50 to 60 deg C (120 to 140 deg F). The pH of the water was 6.9. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, and 67x nital etched micrographs) supported the conclusion that the elbows had been given the usual annealing and normalizing treatment...