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Ammonium compounds

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Stress-corrosion cracking was shown to have caused the failure. The most probable corrosive was ammonia or an ammonium compound in the presence of oxygen and water. All of the tubes were replaced. Admiralty metal, corrosion Brass - C44300 Condenser tubes, corrosion Electric power generation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... vessel. Ammonium compounds Chemical processing equipment Explosions Fires Nitrates Spargers Titanium (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A Case Study from the files of Dr. Charles Rau On 13 December 1994, two massive detonations leveled portions of an ammonium nitrate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... removed from the cooler tube are shown in Fig. 6 . The internal deposits consisted of silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), potassium aluminum silicate (KAlSiO 4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), and ammonium copper sulfite hydrate [(NH 4 ) 7 CU(SO 2 ) 4 .5H 2 O]. In addition to the elements contained in these compounds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... positions One longitudinal specimen 20 cm (8 in.) long that included the spigot end of mold One transverse specimen across the score marks located at the 6:30 o'clock position Transverse specimens through shiny spots Several specimens were polished and etched with ammonium persulfate [(NH 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... diffraction (XRD) techniques. The internal deposits consisted of silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), potassium aluminum silicate (KAlSiO 4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), and ammonium copper sulfite hydrate [(NH 4 ) 7 Cu(SO 2 ) 4 · 5H 2 O]. In addition to the elements contained in these compounds, EDS detected minor to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... residue which consists of combustion products from the solid propellant cartridges and corrosion products from the chamber are quite complex. Due to the complex nature of the residue, not all of the compounds present have been identified. From the XRD study ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... voids. Etched in ammonium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide. (a) 62×. (b) 496×. Fig. 4 Micrograph showing a typical through-wall void.Unetched. 62×. A small section was removed from impeller 1 for quantitative chemical analysis. The chemical composition of the impeller material is presented in...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the hot wall at all times. Diffusion of carbon, gaseous carbon compounds, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases from the environment into the interior of metal parts is also a major source of stress in service. The formation of corrosion products by local attack in confined spaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Gurney energy, kJ/kg Ammonium nitrate (84%) + gasoline (6%) + TNT (10%) 0.9 3300 1230 The prepared explosive blend was laid on flyer plate by means of a wooden box possessing a height corresponding to desired load ratio ( Fig. 3a ). Also, as Fig. 3(a) depicts, the determined stand-off...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... Inquiries revealed there were fertilizer (ammonium chloride) and steelmaking additions stored above the pipe in the hold. The porous, granular steel-making addition stuck to the pipe, providing a reservoir for the fertilizer and moisture. It was likely that most of the corrosion occurred after the voyage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... related to the residual concentrations of treatment chemicals used to control corrosion, as one would hope. The chemical treatment package included a filming amine corrosion inhibitor and ammonium bisulfite as an oxygen scavenger. Closer inspection of the data, however, showed that the residual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... solutions are available from specialty companies. Table 1 Qualitative chemical tests used in materials identification Element tested for Reagent Positive result Applications Chromium Diphenylcarbazide Violet color Identify chromium-free steel Cobalt Ammonium thiocyanate/acetone...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... SCC to occur in a given alloy. For example, ammonia compounds have been identified as agents that produce SCC in copper-zinc alloys. The arsenic, antimony, or phosphorus additions for inhibiting dezincification do not prevent SCC of inhibited admiralty metals (copper alloys C44300, C44400, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). Carburization is the formation of carbide corrosion products on exposure to temperatures higher than approximately 760 °C (1400 °F) in gases containing methane, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon, and other carbonaceous compounds. Carburization alone usually does not result in corrosion or alloy wastage, but...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... contamination and formation of hydrides of titanium. Severe hydride formation has been noted in high-pressure dry gaseous hydrogen around particles of iron present on the surface. Anodizing in a 10% ammonium sulfate solution removes surface contamination and leads to thickening of the normal oxide film. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... formation of hydrides of titanium. Severe hydride formation has been noted in high-pressure dry gaseous hydrogen around particles of iron present on the surface. Anodizing in a 10% ammonium sulfate solution removes surface contamination and leads to thickening of the normal oxide film. In chemical-plant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the depolarizing effect of the intermetallic compound FeAl 3 ), and galvanic attack of magnesium increases rapidly with increasing iron content. The effect of iron is diminished by the presence of magnesium in the alloy ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 7 Corrosion rates in 3% NaCl solution of magnesium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1