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Ammonium compounds

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Stress-corrosion cracking was shown to have caused the failure. The most probable corrosive was ammonia or an ammonium compound in the presence of oxygen and water. All of the tubes were replaced. Admiralty metal, corrosion Brass - C44300 Condenser tubes, corrosion Electric power generation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... vessel. Ammonium compounds Chemical processing equipment Explosions Fires Nitrates Spargers Titanium (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A Case Study from the files of Dr. Charles Rau On 13 December 1994, two massive detonations leveled portions of an ammonium nitrate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in these compounds, EDS detected minor to trace amounts of titanium, manganese, iron, and zinc. Most of these deposits are common minerals found in water. Ammonium copper sulfite hydrate indicated the possible presence of ammonia. Therefore, approximately 0.5 g of internal deposit were analyzed for ammonia...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... are shown in Fig. 6 . The internal deposits consisted of silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), potassium aluminum silicate (KAlSiO 4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), and ammonium copper sulfite hydrate [(NH 4 ) 7 CU(SO 2 ) 4 .5H 2 O]. In addition to the elements contained in these compounds, EDS detected minor to trace...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the residue, not all of the compounds present have been identified. From the XRD study ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride were found to be present in the residue. It is well documented that ammonium nitrate is an aggressive agent responsible for SCC in steel ( 5 , 6 , 7 ). The presence of chloride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... positions One longitudinal specimen 20 cm (8 in.) long that included the spigot end of mold One transverse specimen across the score marks located at the 6:30 o'clock position Transverse specimens through shiny spots Several specimens were polished and etched with ammonium persulfate [(NH 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... with the unaided eye. Fig. 3 Micrographs of typical impeller microstructures, consisting of alpha dendrites with segregation, randomly dispersed lead particles, and shrinkage voids. Etched in ammonium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide. (a) 62×. (b) 496×. Fig. 4 Micrograph showing a typical through-wall...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., gaseous carbon compounds, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases from the environment into the interior of metal parts is also a major source of stress in service. Corrosion Product Wedging The formation of corrosion products by local attack in confined spaces produces high stress levels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... The scale on the internal surface of carbon and low-alloy steel tubes such as T11 and T22 steels consists of FeO (wustite), Fe 2 O 3 (hematite), and Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite). In the presence of moisture or water in the form of condensate, there can also be formation of the compound Fe(OH) 2 (ferrous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... specification. Fig. 20 Contamination by Fertilizer: This shipment of hot rolled pipe exhibited unusual corrosion upon discharge. Inquiries revealed there were fertilizer (ammonium chloride) and steelmaking additions stored above the pipe in the hold. The porous, granular steel-making addition stuck...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.32 Balance 21.12 0.42 0.34 0.08 0.48 The characteristics of utilized explosive Table 2 The characteristics of utilized explosive Chemical composition, wt.% Density, g/cm 3 Average detonation velocity, m/s Gurney energy, kJ/kg Ammonium nitrate (84%) + gasoline (6%) + TNT...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Qualitative chemical tests used in materials identification Table 1 Qualitative chemical tests used in materials identification Element tested for Reagent Positive result Applications Chromium Diphenylcarbazide Violet color Identify chromium-free steel Cobalt Ammonium thiocyanate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Higher magnification view of a pit showing the depth of attack and thickness of the corrosion deposit. 28×. (c) Micrograph showing the intergranular nature of the attack and undercutting of metal particles. Etched with ammonium persulfate. 110× Discussion Most copper alloys depend...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... oilfield, failure costs were found to be inversely related to the residual concentrations of treatment chemicals used to control corrosion, as one would hope. The chemical treatment package included a filming amine corrosion inhibitor and ammonium bisulfite as an oxygen scavenger. Closer inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... higher than approximately 760 °C (1400 °F) in gases containing methane, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon, and other carbonaceous compounds. Carburization alone usually does not result in corrosion or alloy wastage, but adsorption and diffusion of carbon into the base alloy can lead to significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and thickness of the corrosion deposit. Original magnification: 28×. (c) Micrograph showing the intergranular nature of the attack and undercutting of metal particles. Etched with ammonium persulfate. Original magnification: 110× The black deposit was identified as primarily copper sulfide, with zinc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in metals, molecular hydrogen, gaseous products from reactions between hydrogen and alloying or segregated impurity elements, or brittle intermetallic hydride compounds. Specific types of hydrogen damage, some of which occur only in specific alloys under specific conditions ( Table 1 ), are classified...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hydride compounds. Specific types of hydrogen damage, some of which occur only in specific alloys under specific conditions ( Table 1 ), are classified in this article as follows: Hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen-induced blistering Cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen...