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Ammonia, environment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and calibration areas be isolated from molding areas. Ammonia, environment Atmospheric corrosion Circuit breakers Electric contacts, corrosion Electrical resistance 50Ag-50Mo 73W-27Ag Uniform corrosion Background During routine quality control testing, electrical switchgear devices exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Admiralty metal Ammonia, environment Cooling systems Heat exchanger tubes, corrosion Hydroelectric power generation C44300 UNS C44300 Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Background A brass finned tube in a generator air cooler unit failed. Applications The generator air cooler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... thresholds for environmentally assisted cracking. Al-Si bronze was found to be susceptible to subcritical intergranular cracking in air and seawater, whereas Ni-Al bronze was unaffected. Both materials, however, are susceptible to cracking in the presence of ammonia, although the subcritical crack growth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... The tube sheets failed by SCC as a result of the combined action of internal stresses and a corrosive environment. The internal stresses had been induced by retubing operations, and the environment had become corrosive when ammonia was introduced into the system by the occasional use of process make-up...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A heat exchanger failed five years after going into service in an ammonia synthesis plant. Its container, made of Cr-Mo alloy steel (Material No. 1.7362), operated in an environment that did not exceed 400 deg C or 600 atm of hydrogen partial pressure. X-ray examination revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... content and at least the same yield strength. Steps to exclude seawater and any possible source of ammonia from the bolt shank were also suggested. Marine environments Aluminum bronze Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Background An aluminum bronze propeller tap bolt from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in the operating system and on test coupons exposed to the operating environment. Nitrate-reducing bacteria from the lakewater used in cooling were found to produce high levels of ammonia (5.8 mg/L) when established in biofilms. Ammonia levels at the metal surface were 300 times higher than background levels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... spectroscopy (EDS) reveals aluminum, carbon and oxygen, with silicon, sulfur and calcium present in smaller amounts ( Fig. 5 ). While ammonia is more typically culpable, sulfur-containing environments are also known to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in brass materials [ 1 ]. It should be noted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... current testing performed shortly after the shipping damage did not indicate any cracking in the tubes. In most admiralty brass SCC failures, the aggressive corrosive is ammonia or ammonium compounds in the presence of oxygen and water. The condenser was probably exposed to this type of environment...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 43 Effect of initial tensile stress on time-to-fracture by SCC at room temperature of brass in three corrosive environments. Curve A, partly immersed in concentrated ammonium hydroxide; B, exposed to the vapor of concentrated ammonium hydroxide; C, exposed to a gaseous mixture of ammonia More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
of concentrated ammonium hydroxide; C: samples were exposed to a gas mixture of ammonia, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Decarburization Surface defects Nickel steel St 55.25 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Unalloyed steels and the pure nickel steels frequently used in the past for highly stressed forgings are attacked by hydrogen under high pressure. The attack causes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nonbranched cracks have been observed along with branched cracks in structural steel exposed to contaminated agricultural ammonia ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Picral-etched specimen of structural steel that was exposed to contaminated agricultural ammonia showing nonbranched stress-corrosion cracks. 75...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for the development of season-cracks” ( Ref 3 ), and, in the case of cartridge brass, it was determined that this agency was an environment that contained ammonia. It was concluded that season cracking was the result of the chemical composition of the metal, specifically the amount of zinc in the brass alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... containing a fairly high concentration of chlorides (seawater typically contains about 19,000 ppm of dissolved chlorides) and traces of ammonia. Recommendations included redesign of the slots, shot-blasting the formed retainers, and changing the material to a different type of silicon bronze-copper alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of salts in the corrosion deposit. In addition to ammonia, a number of environments can cause cracking, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide with ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, air contaminated with sulfur and nitrogen oxides, nitrates, phosphates, alkalis, chlorides, hydrogen fluoride, and nitric acid ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract An air compressor was installed at a chemical plant in which nitric acid was produced by burning ammonia with air. It was a 5000 hp, 5-stage centrifugal machine running at 6000 rpm, compressing air to 5 atm. Failure of the first stage impeller occurred due to a segment from the back...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... detection of Hg or to detect nitrogen, since ammonia stress corrosion cracking was initially suspected as a failure mechanism. XPS was performed on the unfailed disc on which trace Hg was detected by EDS. Nitrogen, as nitrate, and iron, as iron oxide, were the only elements found that were extraneous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... scale-forming alloys appear to be much more resistant to carburization than the chromia scale-formers ( Ref 16 ). Nitridation Nitridation of alloys in ammonia environments is well known in ammonia and heat treating industries ( Ref 17 ). Nitridation attack by N 2 is known in the powder metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... SCC rather than with fatigue deserves further consideration, because fracture surfaces were intergranular (as commonly observed for SCC), and fatigue cracking in NAB (in air and seawater) is usually transgranular. 11 SCC of copper alloys can occur in a number of environments, including ammonia...