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Ammonia, environment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Decarburization Surface defects Nickel steel St 55.25 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Unalloyed steels and the pure nickel steels frequently used in the past for highly stressed forgings are attacked by hydrogen under high pressure. The attack causes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A heat exchanger failed five years after going into service in an ammonia synthesis plant. Its container, made of Cr-Mo alloy steel (Material No. 1.7362), operated in an environment that did not exceed 400 deg C or 600 atm of hydrogen partial pressure. X-ray examination revealed a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... by SCC as a result of the combined action of internal stresses and a corrosive environment. The internal stresses had been induced by retubing operations, and the environment had become corrosive when ammonia was introduced into the system by the occasional use of process make-up water. The slight...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and calibration areas be isolated from molding areas. Ammonia, environment Atmospheric corrosion Circuit breakers Electric contacts, corrosion Electrical resistance 50Ag-50Mo 73W-27Ag Uniform corrosion During routine quality control testing, electrical switchgear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... used. Admiralty metal Ammonia, environment Cooling systems Heat exchanger tubes, corrosion Hydroelectric power generation C44300 UNS C44300 Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking A brass finned tube in a generator air cooler unit failed. The as-received...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... thresholds for environmentally assisted cracking. Al-Si bronze was found to be susceptible to subcritical intergranular cracking in air and seawater, whereas Ni-Al bronze was unaffected. Both materials, however, are susceptible to cracking in the presence of ammonia, although the subcritical crack growth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... content and at least the same yield strength. Steps to exclude seawater and any possible source of ammonia from the bolt shank were also suggested. Marine environments Aluminum bronze Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking An aluminum bronze propeller tap bolt from a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Stress-corrosion cracking was shown to have caused the failure. The most probable corrosive was ammonia or an ammonium compound in the presence of oxygen and water. All of the tubes were replaced. Admiralty metal, corrosion Brass - C44300 Condenser tubes, corrosion Electric power generation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract An air compressor was installed at a chemical plant in which nitric acid was produced by burning ammonia with air. It was a 5000 hp, 5-stage centrifugal machine running at 6000 rpm, compressing air to 5 atm. Failure of the first stage impeller occurred due to a segment from the back...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... of moisture containing a fairly high concentration of chlorides (seawater typically contains about 19,000 ppm of dissolved chlorides) and traces of ammonia. Recommendations included redesign of the slots, shot-blasting the formed retainers, and changing the material to a different type of silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in the operating system and on test coupons exposed to the operating environment. Nitrate-reducing bacteria from the lakewater used in cooling were found to produce high levels of ammonia (5.8 mg/L) when established in biofilms. Ammonia levels at the metal surface were 300 times higher than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coloration of adjacent beach marks is typically due to changes in loading or environmental factors. In the SEM at sufficiently high magnification, fatigue striations can be detected in many materials but not all ( Fig. 8 ). In hardened steel or high-strength steels—very common materials—striations may often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... strong ( Ref 26 ). The synergistic attack by wear and corrosion is complicated, influenced by a number of factors including material properties, wearing condition, and environmental corrosivity. Understanding the factors helps control corrosive wear. Materials having...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... air, lead in sulfate-containing environments, and stainless steel in humid air creating passive films. In general terms, uniform corrosion can be classified further according to the specific conditions of environmental or electrochemical attack. For example, uniform thinning can be attributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... connector surfaces utilizing energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals aluminum, carbon and oxygen, with silicon, sulfur and calcium present in smaller amounts ( Fig. 5 ). While ammonia is more typically culpable, sulfur-containing environments are also known to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... through their entire length. Such stresses are caused by the increased distortion of the tubes. An environment conducive to SCC was provided by the concentration of salts in the corrosion deposit. In addition to ammonia, a number of environments can cause cracking, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ), and, in the case of cartridge brass, it was determined that this agency was an environment that contained ammonia. It was concluded that season cracking was the result of the chemical composition of the metal, specifically the amount of zinc in the brass alloy; the presence of an environment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Intergranular fracture Mercury Rupturing Safety equipment C22000 UNS C22000 Liquid metal induced embrittlement Since initial analyses on the disc samples revealed no indications of mercury, stress-corrosion cracking by ammonia, nitrogen compounds or sulfur compounds was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The growth of calcium carbonate crystal by various sizes and shapes depend on the environmental condition. Stocks-Fischer et al. [ 16 ] have examined the physical and biochemical properties of CaCO 3 precipitation in sand and found that only rhombohedral calcite crystals were produced. They also...