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Alloying elements

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 68 Oxidation potential of alloying elements and iron in steel heated in endothermic gas with an average composition of 40% H 2 , 20% CO, 1.5% CH 4 , 0.5% CO 2 , 0.28% H 2 O (dewpoint, 10 °C, or 50 °F), and 37.72% N 2 . Source: Ref 30 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... modification through heat treatment is hardenability. Hardenability is a term used to quantify the relative response of a material to thermal treatment transformation to martensite based upon alloying elements and other variables. Many researchers have empirically determined the individual and combined effects...
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 32 (a) Lighter and darker etching areas of 4340 alloy steel show nonuniform distribution of alloying elements. Nital etch. (b) Chemically etched 304 stainless steel shows wavy alloy segregation. Marble’s etch More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 8 EDS scan of polished specimen for alloy composition. Element Composition, % Iron 84.66 Chromium 12.61 Nickel 0.98 Silicon 0.27 Manganese 1.48 Molybdenum 0.00 More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 12 EDS spectrum of a high quality 13/16 in. wrench socket showing alloying elements such as Ni and Cr that were not present in the failed socket More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... chemistry (i.e., contains alloying elements such as Ni and Cr). Obviously, Cr and Ni alloying elements are missing in the failed wrench socket affecting its strength and resistance to failure. Fig. 10 EDS spectrum of the region shown in Fig. 9 showing contaminant elements of Al and S along...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... elements) to preferentially partition into the liquid phase, which has higher solubility for alloying elements. This would leave a solute-depleted zone around the rosette, which has a lower density of hardening precipitates, thus causing this zone to etch less. Figures 7 and 8 reveal additional...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... to the right side of the picture is a broad segregation band. Here the zone-wise less powerful attack of the etchant is the result of the accumulation of alloying elements as well as of carbides in the segregation bands. The increased concentration of alloying elements makes these bands vulnerable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with both bulk hardness and conductivity provides an indication of the alloy and temper ( Ref 2 ). There are times when a conclusive PMI is not possible due to alloys having overlapping weight percentages for similar elements as well as overlapping mechanical properties. In this case, other methods may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of iron acts as a grain refiner and also increases the yield strength [ 1 ]. The use of these three alloying elements creates a metallurgically complex alloy that needs to be strictly controlled to obtain all of the desired properties. Without the proper fabrication procedures, the corrosion resistant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as the failure mechanism in the investigation. electrical connectors tin pest plating defect copper alpha tin x-ray diffraction temperature copper (copper contact alloy, general) tin-bismuth (tin-bismuth plating alloy, general) Introduction The element tin has three crystalline forms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of elemental sulfur, where the corrosion is expected to be very severe and special alloys such as Inconel 625 can be used [ 3 , 4 ]. The manufacturing parts of the pumps from different alloys may result in severe galvanic corrosion, particularly when they are away from each other in the electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... based on alloys of similar composition. The response of the instrument to the alloys present is rarely linear with respect to composition. Thus, a general idea of the expected amount of any element is required in order to determine the composition in an accurate and precise manner. Of course, if enough...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to depletion of chromium and breakaway corrosion. Once sulfur has reacted with the alloy, sulfur tends to preferably react with chromium or aluminum to form sulfides; this may cause redistribution of the scale-forming elements or interfere with the formation of protective oxide scales. Nickel-chromium alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... conclusion is that the observed failure resulting from embrittlement was due to the presence of grain boundary and matrix carbides ( Figs. 4 , 5 ). During austenitization, the austenite dissolves significant carbon and other alloying elements which can lead to precipitation of carbides upon hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... zone indicated a depletion ofchromium and nickel, the two main alloying elements of AISI 9310 steel. The spectrum from the remaining material was consistent with the specified steel. Mechanical Properties Hardness The hardnesses of the case and core were 63 and 38 HRC, respectively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... cracks by means of which the corrosion has penetrated more deeply leading to cracks in the metal. As a result of diffusion particularly of the alloying elements iron, chromium, nickel and manganese, various fringe-like enrichment zones have established themselves along the edges of the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and cobalt; titanium, aluminum, and molybdenum were minor alloying elements. Tungsten, niobium, and tantalum were not detected. A more accurate chemical analysis revealed the following composition: 53.7% Ni, 18 to 20% Cr, 18.2% Co, 3.7% Ti, 3.7% Mo, 2.5% Al, 0.1 to 0.2% Fe, <0.1% Nb, 0.085% C, and 0.006...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Analysis The chemical composition of the tube is presented in Table 2 , along with the alloy composition specified for Monel 400 according to ASTM B 366-95b. As shown, the chemical composition of the tube section was within the specified range for all elements except nickel, which was slightly lower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The contrast difference in the BSE image represents the difference in atomic number between particles, revealing a variance in composition distribution and clearly highlighting the precipitates which have different chemical composition. Precipitates or enrichment points of alloy elements are usually rich...