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Alkaline corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on the crown of the top tubes and located in an area near the upward bend of the tube. The inside of all the tubes were covered with a loosely adherent, black, alkaline, powdery deposit comprised mainly of magnetite. The corroded areas, however, had relatively less deposit. The morphology of the corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The containers were then filled with the slightly alkaline solution, pressurized, and allowed to stand under ambient conditions. A small number, less than 1%, were returned because they began to leak in service. Inspection revealed general corrosion and pitting on the inner surfaces. However, other tanks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The expanding corrosion product had cracked and, in some places, had flaked away the anodized coating. The corrodent had penetrated the base aluminum in the form of subsurface intergranular attack to a depth of 0.035 mm (0.0014 in.). It was recommended that a vapor degreaser be used during cleaning prior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... environment was alkaline black liquor at 175° C (350° F). The pipe had developed cracks on the inside surface coincident with an external support gusset. The cracks had initiated at wide corrosion grooves. The early stages were corrosion-assisted fatigue cracks ( Fig. 1 ). The cracks initiated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The field welding of the pipe joints had apparently been done under highly constrained conditions, using inadequate welding procedures. Although carbon steels are acceptable for corrosion service in alkaline kraft pulping, highly stressed areas, particularly non-stress-relieved welds, are known...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of corrosion can be best avoided by completely filling the system with condensate or with treated boiler water. Alkalinity should be maintained at a pH of 9.0, and approximately 200 ppm of sodium sulfite should be added to the water. Alternatively, dry nitrogen should be admitted to the system after steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fractographs, and micrographs) showed evidence of IGSCC initiating at the OD and IGA under ridgelike deposits that were analyzed and found to be slightly alkaline to very alkaline (caustic) in nature. Crack oxide analysis indicated sulfate levels in excess of expected values. The analysis supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... was replaced with an Inconel clad carbon steel inlet cone to combat the SCC. Chlorides Inlet cones Paper machines 304L UNS S30403 Stress-corrosion cracking The Pandia digester is a long cylindrical vessel which uses alkaline sulfite liquor to cook sawdust for pulping. The cylindrical vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... milled section of the floor. An alkaline etch-type cleaner was used on the panels before chemical milling and before painting. Various tests and measurements indicated that the aluminum alloy used for the fuel-tank floors conformed to the specifications for 7178-T6. Low power magnification, fractographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Caustic cracking is the term used to describe one of the forms in which stress-corrosion cracking manifests itself in carbon steels. In the present study, persistent leakage occurred after ten weeks of service from tube expansions in the steam and mud drum of a two-drum D type boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the local pH will be about 3.5, as opposed to over 11.5 in the concrete. Under such conditions corrosion of the reinforcement will continue to occur despite the alkalinity of the surrounding concrete. Fig. 2 Electron image showing bright metal (left), oxidation products (right) and the commencement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Sodium, tin, and zinc could have been present in a pigmented oil or grease used as a lubricant during spring winding and could have been left on the Inconel wire by the manufacturer. The white deposit on the surface of some of the springs was slightly alkaline and could have initiated stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and above 12 [ 1 , 2 ]. An inability to maintain the pH of feed water increases greatly the probability of serious waterside corrosion. A good boiler water treatment practice should provide a moderately alkaline environment to keep the protective oxide film in place [ 1 ]. The waterside corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of operation in a 2500 MW hydroelectric power plant. Applications The heat exchangers cool the oil for the speed regulators and thrust bearings of a major hydroelectric power plant in Brazil. Circumstances Leading to Failure Inspection of the heat exchangers revealed advanced corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... Fig. 5 Transcrystalline cracks originating from pitting scars, cross section, unetched. Chlorides are the most likely corrosive agents for this type of attack, while concentrated alkaline solutions are somewhat less corrosive. If no chloride ions were present in small concentration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... The fittings were mechanically threaded assemblies. Temperatures ranged from 150 to 155 deg F (65.6 to 68.3 deg C). Leaks in the system had reportedly initiated immediately after the building had been placed in service. The cause of corrosion inside the steel pipes was attributed to tuberculation caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... alkaline conditions. The probability of sulfur, a lesser by-product of the removal of H 2 S, inducing hydrogen embrittlement under alkaline conditions is slight. Hydrogen embrittlement from arsenic may therefore have been the added influence that helped produce transgranular corrosion rather than...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... at about 13 and 7.8, respectively—degrees of alkalinity that are relatively benign with respect to corrosive attack on nickel-base superalloys and type 304 stainless steel. Additionally, the boiler water is treated with amines, which are corrosion inhibitors. Nitric acid is much more corrosively aggressive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... indicative of tensile overload. The flat portion of the fracture surface was typical of fatigue cracking. Fatigue striations were revealed by SEM. Corrosion pitting on the tubing ID from which the fatigue crack had propagated were observed on closer examination. The corrosion pitting was speculated to have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... many others cracks on the internal surface which did not penetrate to the outside. Microscopical examination showed multiple intergranular, tree-like cracking typical of stress-corrosion cracking. Concentration of sodium hydroxide occurred in the bellows unit and the stress-corrosion cracking which...