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Alkalies, environment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the failures. Minimizing residual stresses through use of welding procedures that include appropriate preweld and interpass temperatures and postweld stress relief heat treatment at 650 deg C (1200 deg F) was recommended to prevent further failures. Alkalies, environment Heat-affected zone Papermaking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was further aggravated by the presence of silicon and sulfur (silicates and sulfates). It was recommended that the tubes be replaced with Inconel 600 or 601, as a practical option until the carryover problem could be solved. Alkalies, environment Boiler tubes Environmental effects Inconel 600, 601...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... years to approximately 9 months. Several corroded grate bars were examined metallographically and by electron microscopy to determine the causes of the accelerated corrosion. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses were also conducted, along with simulation tests to assess the role of alkali chlorides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... were found completely through the oxide layers on the fracture surfaces, it was concluded that the operating environment of the bellows must have contained detrimental contaminants far in excess of the expected levels. Alkali-induced failure of Inconel 600 at temperatures in the range of 420 °C (790 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., operation, or fabrication. Nickel alloys have improved resistance to environmental cracking over steels and stainless steels, although nickel alloys are not immune to SCC. Stress-corrosion cracking of certain nickel alloys has occurred in high-temperature halogen ion environments, high-temperature waters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the epoxy resin encapsulant. The incompletely cured resin possesses imperfect macromolecular network, which is easily permeated by water molecules in the humidity in the atmosphere during storage in uncontrolled environment. The ester groups are hydrolyzed by humidity, and the polymers become softened...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in part to toxic chromates (Cr 6+ ). The alkali chromites (Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 or Na 2 CrO 4 ) are water leachable and therefore present an environmental contamination risk in disposal sites. To assess the corrosion resistance of different types of refractories, a rule of thumb is to consider...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on the other side. The weld metal showed evidence of secondary hardening on stress relief. The environments usually contributing to stress corrosion cracking in mild steel are alkalies (hydroxides), nitrates and occasionally hydrogen sulphide or ammonia. We are informed that this particular process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 414 (cast cobalt-base superalloy) Introduction Overview of Gas Turbine Engine Hot Parts Hot Corrosion and Oxidation in High Temperature Environments Case Histories Summary References References 1. Cramer S.D. , Covino B.S. Jr. : ASM Handbook, Volume 13C—Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the corrosion deposit. In addition to ammonia, a number of environments can cause cracking, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide with ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, air contaminated with sulfur and nitrogen oxides, nitrates, phosphates, alkalis, chlorides, hydrogen fluoride, and nitric acid ( Ref 1 , 2 ). The EDX...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube failures, molten salts for energy storage, and degradation and failures in gas turbines. The article describes the effects of environment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the delamination survey, potential and corrosion mapping, concrete chemistry, and concrete physical properties. The major cause of corrosion damage appears to have been the presence of both pre-existing and environmentally-delivered chlorides in the concrete. Bridges Cements Chlorides Support beams Steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in Steam Equipment Boilers and other types of steam-power-plant equipment are subject to a wide variety of failures involving one or more of several mechanisms. Most prominent among these mechanisms are corrosion, including pitting and erosion; mechanical-environment processes, including stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Continuous welding is necessary for horizontal stiffeners to prevent the formation of traps and crevices. (j) Square sections formed from two L-shaped members require continuous welding to seal out the external environment. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 9 Impressed-current cathodic protection of a buried...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the material. As the thickness of the film increases, the rate of formation falls and ultimately becomes insignificant. In certain environments a magnetite film possesses self-healing properties and rapidly reforms when damaged, so that if bare metal becomes exposed locally the protective film is quickly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The Failure Results of Laboratory Investigation Analysis of Failure Conclusions Acknowledgments References References 1. Lobley G.R. , Stress corrosion cracking: Cases in refinery equipment . In: Environment-induced cracking of materials , Proceedings of 2nd International...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-particle erosion. Fly-ash erosion is a matter of concern especially when dealing with low-grade coal with high ash content. The ash content of low-grade coal can be as high as 45 to 50% and may be comprised of hard abrasive species such as quartz (SiO 2 ), alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), alkali feldspars, (K,Na...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Selected References Selected References • Davies M. , Corrosion by Alkalis , Corrosion: Environments and Industries , Vol 13C , ASM Handbook , Cramer S.D. and Covino B.S. , Ed., ASM International , 2006 , p 710 – 726 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004184 • French D.N...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... corrosion control corrosion prevention corrosion testing corrosion-related failures environmental-related failures metals nonmetals CORROSION is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. A study by NACE International in 2016 examined nine world economic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: Environments and Industries , Vol 13C , ASM Handbook , Cramer S.D. and Covino B.S. , Ed., ASM International , 2006 , p 89 – 96 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113 Coating and cathodic protection (CP) are both engineering techniques with the primary purpose of mitigating and preventing...