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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... large amounts of sodium, calcium, potassium, aluminum, and sulfur, alkali, alkali earth, and other contaminants that completely permeated even the thin oxides on the fracture surfaces. Additional investigation of the purity of the steam itself as reported by the power plant showed that corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... years to approximately 9 months. Several corroded grate bars were examined metallographically and by electron microscopy to determine the causes of the accelerated corrosion. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses were also conducted, along with simulation tests to assess the role of alkali chlorides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the rupture. A red and white deposit was found on the sides and bottom of the tube in the rupture area. The deposit was produced by attack of the steel by the alkali acid sulfate and had thinned the tube wall. It was concluded that rupture of the tube had occurred due to thinning of the wall by coal-ash...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... fracture surfaces were all similar in appearance, and a primary crack origin could not be identified. A secondary crack brought to fracture in the laboratory showed brittle, cleavage features rather than classic, tensile overload features. This suggested that the material was embrittled. Alkalies...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... caustic cracks than others, although their microstructures may not show any significant differences, and it seems probable that this behavior may be related to the amount and continuity of the grain-boundary carbides. Alkalies Boilers Carbides Caustic cracking Electron microscopy Steam boilers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...–3090) >2000 (>3630) 1800 (3270) Silicon carbide <1400 (<2550) 1500 (2730) 1200 (2190) 1600 (2910) NR, not recommended. Temperature limit not reached for “normal” durability Corrosion resistance of structural ceramics to fused salts, alkalis, and low-melting oxides Table...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is that perfect macromolecular structure is corrupted. In this case, 3D macromolecular network is normally formed during curing process, but is destroyed and fractured during storage by strong acids, alkalis, and so on. The third possible reason is that imperfect macromolecular network is destroyed. In this case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on the other side. The weld metal showed evidence of secondary hardening on stress relief. The environments usually contributing to stress corrosion cracking in mild steel are alkalies (hydroxides), nitrates and occasionally hydrogen sulphide or ammonia. We are informed that this particular process...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... products, the oxide, even in oxidizing environments, becomes unstable and dissolves. Alkali sulfates deposited on the fireside surfaces of boilers may react with SO 3 or SO 2 to form mixtures of alkali pyrosulfates (m.p. 400–480 °C) or alkali-iron trisulfates (550 °C, or 1030 °F) that cause fireside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of 30 p.p.m., this being subsequently treated with a proprietary tannin extract, without—as far as is known—addition of alkali. It is considered, therefore, that the agent responsible was probably chlorides. The stresses, in all probability, were those developed by tightening the nuts. Whether...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... are chlorides such as calcium and magnesium chloride, but also highly concentrated alkali solutions such as potassium or sodium hydroxide. The process takes place very slowly at room temperature, but is strongly accelerated by raising the temperature, Stresses are effective even if they lie far below the yield...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... pollutants entering with the inlet air depend on the turbine location, but include sodium, sulfur, chlorine, and calcium. These impurities in the fuel and the air can lead to deposition of alkali metal sulfates on the blade or vane surfaces, resulting in hot corrosion attack [ 2 ]. The areas of the gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the failures. Minimizing residual stresses through use of welding procedures that include appropriate preweld and interpass temperatures and postweld stress relief heat treatment at 650 deg C (1200 deg F) was recommended to prevent further failures. Alkalies, environment Heat-affected zone Papermaking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... identified and counted on split and polished core faces and on the exterior surfaces of other cores. A preliminary macroscopic scan of deteriorating areas of the bridge concrete, including areas under loosened aggregate grains, was done to determine the presence of significant alkali-silica reaction (ASR...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., as develops in such cases. The solution of magnetite by caustic alkali results in the formation of sodium ferroate and ferrite, in accordance with the following equation 3 :— Fe 3 O 4 + 4 NAOH = Na 2 FeO 2 ( Ferroate ) + 2 NaFeO 2 ( Ferrite ) + 2 H...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the corrosion deposit. In addition to ammonia, a number of environments can cause cracking, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide with ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, air contaminated with sulfur and nitrogen oxides, nitrates, phosphates, alkalis, chlorides, hydrogen fluoride, and nitric acid ( Ref 1 , 2 ). The EDX...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was further aggravated by the presence of silicon and sulfur (silicates and sulfates). It was recommended that the tubes be replaced with Inconel 600 or 601, as a practical option until the carryover problem could be solved. Alkalies, environment Boiler tubes Environmental effects Inconel 600, 601...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-particle erosion. Fly-ash erosion is a matter of concern especially when dealing with low-grade coal with high ash content. The ash content of low-grade coal can be as high as 45 to 50% and may be comprised of hard abrasive species such as quartz (SiO 2 ), alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), alkali feldspars, (K,Na...