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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Copper tubes from the cooler assemblies of a large air-conditioning unit exhibited leakage upon installation of the unit. Sections from two leaking tubes and one nonleaking tube were subjected to pressure testing and microscopic examination. The cause of leaking was determined...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 18 Same as Figure 17 except heated for 1 hour at 1450F and air cooled; little or no apparent change, nital etch; 100×. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 19 Same as Figure 17 except heated for 1 hour 1650F and air cooled; most of the evidence of ferrite/pearlite band has been eliminated; nital etch; 100×. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 20 Same as Figure 17 except heated for 1 hour at 1850F and air cooled;only traces of banding is still evident; nital etch; 100×. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract The circumstances surrounding the in-service failure of a cast Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 713LC) second stage turbine blade and a cast and coated Co-base superalloy (MAR-M302) first stage air-cooled vane in two turbine engines used for marine application are described. An overview...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... following hot heading and prior to the production run. The process chart for hot heading was changed from water quenching to air cooling following the forming operation. Water quenching 8740 UNS G87400 Heat treating-related failures Intergranular fracture Background A heat-treated, cadmium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and the aging treatment had been at too low of a temperature. Recommendations included the following heat treatments: after forging, solution heat treat at 1040 deg C (1900 deg F) for one hour, then oil quench; to avoid susceptibility to SCC, age at 595 deg C (1100 deg F) for four hours, then air cool...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
..., micrograph of a nital-etched specimen that had been austenitized 20 min at 1095 deg C (2000 deg F) and air cooled 315x, and micrograph of the same specimen after annealing 68 h at 480 deg C (900 deg F) 1000x). Investigation supported the conclusions that the chain link failed in a brittle manner, because...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0047220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... in the gray iron gear teeth were the primary causes of fracture. During subsequent rotation, fragments of gray iron damaged the mating ductile iron gear. Recommendations included replacing the large gear material with ASTM A536, grade 100-70-03, ductile iron normalized at 925 deg C (1700 deg F), air cooled...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 120 Microstructures found in SA285, grade C steel specimens. (a) As-received condition. (b) Heated to 750 °C (1380 °F) and air cooled. (c) Heated to 800 °C (1470 °F) and air cooled. (d) Heated to 1000 °C (1830 °F) and air cooled. Measured hardnesses are indicated for comparison purposes More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 52 Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images of (a) 2% ferrite, annealed and air cooled, showing carbide and chi (light) phase (28Cr-53Fe-12Mo-5Ni) with 0.10 mm (0.004 in.) lateral expansion at −195 °C (−320 °F), and (b) 2% ferrite, annealed and air cooled, showing virtually More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract An arsenical admiralty brass (UNS C44300) finned tube in a generator air cooler unit at a hydroelectric power station failed. The unit had been in operation for approximately 49,000 h. The cooling medium for the tubes was water from a river. Air flowed over the finned exterior...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 8 Micrographs of specimens taken from the surface (a) and center (b) of ASTM A537 (grade A) plate normalized by austenitizing at 910 °C (1670 °F) followed by air cooling. Grain size of ferrite (light) and pearlite (dark) is larger at the center of the 50 mm (2 in.) thick plate More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... annealed prior to finish machining. During the annealing treatment, after a 30 min soak at 1050 °C (1920 °F), component A was furnace cooled at a rate of 120 °C/h (215 °F/h), whereas component B was air cooled. Subsequently, the parts were pickled in a solution of 10 to 20% HNO 3 , 2 to 3% HF...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...) for 4 h, austenitize at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 30 min, furnace cool to 845 °C (1550 °F) and hold for 30 min, quench in salt bath at 205 °C (400 °F) for 20 min, air cool to 50 °C (125 °F), wash in hot water, air dry, snap temper at 315 °C (600 °F) for 4 h, air cool, final temper at 550 °C (1025 °F) for 4 h...
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Published: 01 January 2002
(2000 °F) and air cooled. 315×. (g) Micrograph of the specimen in (f) after annealing 68 h at 480 °C (900 °F). 1000×. (h) Chart showing time at temperature needed to embrittle austenitic manganese steel after heat treating for 2 h at 1095 °C (2000 °F) and water quenching More
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Published: 01 June 2019
(2000 °F) and air cooled. 315×. (g) Micrograph of the specimen in (f) after annealing 68 h at 480 °C (900 °F). 1000×. (h) Chart showing time at temperature needed to embrittle austenitic manganese steel after heat treating for 2 h at 1095 °C (2000 °F) and water quenching More
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Published: 30 August 2021
of a nital-etched specimen that had been austenitized 20 min at 1095 °C (2000 °F) and air cooled. Original magnification: 315×. (g) Micrograph of the specimen in (f) after annealing 68 h at 480 °C (900 °F). Original magnification: 1000×. (h) Chart showing time at temperature needed to embrittle austenitic More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Tubes in heat exchangers, made of copper alloy C44300 and used for cooling air failed after 5 to six years of service. Air passed over the shell-side surface of the tubes and was cooled by water flowing through the tubes. Water vapor in the air was condensed (pH 4.5) on the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...; 4400×. Microstructure of Heat Treated Steel Samples Using an unused melting pot as a source of sample material, pieces of steel were heated for one hour at various temperatures and air cooled to room temperature. This heat treatment simulated the temperature cycle that a pot might experience...