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Acid pickling

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... during investigation. Etch pits were revealed by the cleaned surface which were never observed on properly phosphated coating. It was interpreted that the spring had been subjected to an abnormal acid attack in pickling or phosphating which had resulted in considerable absorption of hydrogen by the metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... mechanism. As for the factors involved, cadmium plating, acid pickling, and steelmaking processes introduce hydrogen on part surfaces. As a second contributing factor, both bolts were 10 Rc points higher in hardness than specified (25 Rc), lessening ductility and notch toughness. A third factor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement. Measurement of hydrogen content in the raw material prior to fabrication was recommended. Careful control of acid pickling procedures for descaling of the hot-rolled bars was also deemed necessary. Inclusions Subsurface cracks 38KhA Hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by intergranular attack and slight dezincification of the inner bore surface of the fitting. Dezincification and intergranular attack were attributed to excessive exposure to nonoxidizing acids in the pickling bath. Dezincification Inert gas service CDA 377 UNS C37700 Intergranular corrosion Dealloying...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Investigation (visual inspection, 95x unetched images, chemical testing with a 5% salt spray, chemical testing with sodium hypochlorite at three strength levels, samples were also pickled in an aqueous solution containing 15 vol% concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and 3 vol% concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 a). Etched in aqueous nitric acid 1:1 at 2 V for 3 min. Crack propagation, cross-section (Same area after different etching treatments). 200 × b). Etched in V 2 A pickling solution (50 ° C). Crack propagation, cross-section (Same area after different etching treatments). 200 × More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 11 Contamination by Acid: In this shipment from Europe, a survey prior to loading revealed seepage and a positive result for a chloride spot test. Note that these coils had been descaled. When the coils arrived in Malaysia six weeks later, there was unusually severe corrosion in the same More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... 5 As Fig. 4 ., after etching with V2A pickle, 200× The narrow gap between vessel and mild steel casing may have aggravated the situation in that it hindered ventilation and evaporation of condensation and favoured the absorption and concentration of acids and salts. Contact and crevice...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... cracking prior to galvanizing. The hardness of 35 HRC, in conjunction with acid pickling before galvanizing, could have resulted in conditions favorable for such cracking. Such thumbnail regions also could have resulted from brittle initial fracture areas caused by overbending and restraightening before...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the flange disk for macroscopic metallographic examination. it was pickled with diluted hydrochloric acid. This caused the erosion of a coarse-meshed network that coincided with the primary grain boundaries in the globular solidified inner zone, but cut across the dendrites in the crystallized outer zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to stress-corrosion cracking and additional corrosion due to ventilation elements. Because austenitic chromium nickel steels are prone to stress-corrosion cracking, particularly in the presence of chlorine compounds at high temperatures, and because austenitic rust- and acid-resistant steels are prone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... through the cracked region, unetched. 10 × Fig. 3 a). Etched in aqueous nitric acid 1:1 at 2 V for 3 min. Crack propagation, cross-section (Same area after different etching treatments). 200 × b). Etched in V 2 A pickling solution (50 ° C). Crack propagation, cross-section (Same area after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... residues were the result of contamination. After a methodical check of chlorine sources (trichloroethane degreasers, hydrochloric acid pickling solutions, sodium chloride water softener salts, bleaches, etc.), the source of the chlorine contamination was traced to the sodium hypochlorite cleaning solution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as leading to HE or SCC. There is also a possibility of hydrogen build-in during the pickling process. The presence of sulfates on the surface suggests that the pipe was pickled using sulfuric acid that may have built in hydrogen. The presence of boron suggests that boric acid may have been used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... no blisters could be discerned visually. Only the butt welds and their adjoining areas proved to be crack-free. The black film developed large quantities of hydrogen sulfide when drops of sulfuric acid were applied and dyed bromide paper saturated with sulfuric acid (Baumann Sulfur Print) dark ( Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in many metals and is readily available during the production, processing, and service of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing liquids or gases Depending on the type of hydrogen-metal interaction, hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... revealed little difference between the two tubes. When an etchant with a small amount of silver nitrate added to the nitric acid was used, the grain boundaries of the embrittled tube were attacked ( Fig. 2 ), suggesting that an intergranular constituent was causing the embrittlement. Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... scale is left on, although occasionally some is surface treated after rolling, say by pickling in acid or grit blasting, and then left in that condition. Fig. 1 Red hills of hematite in Northwest Australia. Rust is iron (steel) reverting to nature. Photograph by David Dare Parker reproduced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... resembling “rock candy” appearance Fig. 7 Light optical micrographs of 10% oxalic acid etched coil sample No. 1 revealing pronounced intergranular cracking, stepwise microcracking, grain dropping, and intergranular ditching in austenite microstructure of low nickel stainless steel Fig. 8...