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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... on the crane. Corrosion EDS SEM 65-45-12 Fatigue fracture Introduction A large mobile harbor crane commissioned in the early 1990s operated for more than ten years. Operations included lifting containers off ships and tractor-trailer transportation vehicles. Generally, the crane operates...
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 12 Calculated crack length as a function of time for constant displacement testing of ASB in laboratory air (HTP-9) at applied initial stress intensities of a K J = 45 ksi√in. (49 MPa√m) and K J = 65 ksi√in. (71 MPa√m) More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...× The circular section at the fracture had a diameter of 19 mm (0.75 in.) and a cross section of 2.85 cm 2 (0.44 in. 2 ). The chemical composition of a portion of the T-hook was determined to be: This composition is typical for ferritic ductile cast iron, grade 60-40-18 or 65-45-12. Scanning electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the fully martensitic as-quenched condition, but is within the expected range for an induction hardened steel ( Ref 10 ). In the first 3 mm (0. 12 in.) below the striking surface, all converted hardnesses were above 65 HRC. The excessive hardnesses measured in the first 3 mm (0. 12 in.) below the striking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... hold 45 (49) 0 2700 lb (12 kN), 335 h hold 65 (71) 0.00042 (11) NAB HTQ-6 2300 lb (10 kN), 71 h hold 35 (38) 0 2700 lb (12 kN), 130 h hold 40 (44) 0 3300 lb (15 kN), 63 h hold 55 (60) 0 3600 lb (16 kN), 250 h hold 65 (71) 0 Fig. 13 Union nut axial stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... under investigation Mean of 3 blades Specification for X 20 Cr 13 Breaking strength (kp/mm 2 ) 76,8 65-30 Yield point (kp/mm 2 ) 60,8 min. 45 Strain δ5 18 min. 16 Necking (%) 64 - Notch toughness (kpm/cm 2 ) 7.6 min. 4 Hardness (kp/mm 2 ) 227 180–250...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to as erosion-corrosion. The detrimental effects of erosion have caused problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and water walls ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ), steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Description of fracture surfaces Table 1 Description of fracture surfaces Corresponding wall-thickness measurements are given in Fig. 3 . Region Location Description Comments A 0–33 cm (0–13 in.) 45° relatively smooth shear failure with relatively little thickness reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... m/s, or 330 ft/s) 2–3 (>100 m/s, or 330 ft/s) Spray 85–256 (impact force) 280–840 45–130 Immersion drop sampling method MgO, Al 2 O 3 , Si 3 N 4 , SiC, ZrO 2 , GS, TiN, 410J1 Ref 27 6.0–7.4 (maximum erosion rate) Waterjet 80–184 (nozzle pressure) 260–605 (nozzle pressure) 60–120...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of microscopic interactions of the surface and the abradant as shown in Fig. 1 ( Ref 12 ). Microplowing and microcutting are the dominant processes in the abrasion of ductile materials, while microcracking is important in brittle materials. Fig. 1 Schematic of different interactions during sliding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... , Feb 1954 5. Laudig J.J. , Hot-Box Research Results..in the Iron-Back Journal Bearing , Rail. Age , Vol 134 ( No. 12 ), March 1953 , p 65 – 69 6. Vander Voort G. F. , Failure of Locomotive Axles , ASM Handbook , Vol 11 , 9th Edition , 1986 7. ASM Metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... tools. Using high-speed photography, these researchers determined that the velocity of a hammer head striking 16-penny nails being driven into wood by an experienced carpenter was 14 m/s (45 ft/s), and, furthermore, when striking a hammer against a steel anvil in a deliberate attempt to cause spalling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The fracture origin is shown in Fig. 3 . Fig. 3 Fracture origin at weld joining cross frame to flange. The contract plans did not show a weld between this flange plate and the 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) thick, 600 mm (24 in.) wide top plate of a double-web crossframe at piers 12, 13, and 14...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for aluminum alloys, copper alloys, carbon steel, stainless steel, and titanium alloys ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). Industry Examples of Cavitation Failure Cavitation in Bearings Cavitation damage in oil-lubricated bearings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... 8 months of operation, the blades of a type 304L stainless steel impeller started to crack adjacent to the blade attachment, with transgranular stress-corrosion fatigue cracking extending at a 45° angle radially outward ( Fig. 2 ). The cracks were weld repaired and a fillet weld buildup was added...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , in Proceedings of the Association of American Railroads, Mechanical Division , 1951 , p 158 – 166 8. Laudig J. J. , Hot-Box Research Results … in the Iron-Back Journal Bearing , Rail. Age , Vol 134 ( No. 12 ), March 1953 , p 65 – 69 9. Report of the Committee on Axle and Crank Pin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., and the location of strain gages in a prior test program. Most of the fracture surface around the extrusion was oriented about 45° to the extrusion walls, a characteristic of a ductile overload separation. However, the portion of the fracture surface including the bottom-aft corner of the spar was flat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... crushing and hence failed in brittle manner sooner than anticipated. A set of another ten samples from the selected group were prepared for Izod impact tests per the ASTM standard [ 12 ]. The samples were machined to 10 mm × 10 mm × 65 mm square cross sections, and V-notched (2-mm depth and included...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The formation of the white layer has been attributed to adhesion ( Ref 12 ), although mechanical “mixing” and diffusion also take place. More probably, a combination of these three occurs to give the specific morphology and composition of the white layer. The deformation zone is clearly formed by the repetitive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of proof on the defendant. Once the plaintiff proves that the product is a proximate cause of injury, the defendant must prove that the benefits outweighed the risk. Discussion of manufacturing and design defects of various products is given in Ref 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15...