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4340 (low-alloy steel)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... low-alloy steel insufficient fillet radius fractography hardness 4340 (low-alloy steel) UNS G43400 Background According to the information provided at the beginning of our investigation, the submitted specimen is the drive shaft in the propulsion system of a boat that operated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., AMS 6415 steel. Hardness measurements were within the range required for this part. The microstructure was free from any abnormalities or defects. Visual and low-magnification (15 to 30 x) examination of the fracture surfaces showed that the failure had originated at several corrosion pits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract An AISI 4340 threaded steel connecting rod that was part of a connecting linkage used between a parachute and an instrumented drop test assembly fractured under high dynamic loading when the assembly was dropped from an airplane. A large flaw that originated from the root...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A 4340 steel piston engine crankshaft in a transport aircraft failed catastrophically during flight. The fracture occurred in the pin radius zone. Fractographic studies established the mode of failure as fatigue under a complex combination of bending and torsional stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.../S0167-8442(00)00050-1 10. Li C.X. , Sun Y. , and Bell T. : “Factors Influencing Fretting Fatigue Properties of Plasma-Nitrided Low Alloy Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A , 2000 , 292 , pp. 18 – 25 . 10.1016/S0921-5093(00)01017-0 Selected References Selected References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Fretting Fatigue Properties of Plasma-Nitrided Low Alloy Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A , 2000 , 292 , pp. 18 – 25 . 10.1016/S0921-5093(00)01017-0 Selected References Selected References • Wulpi D.J. , Failures of Shafts , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... analyst will still encounter such failures when proper design considerations are not made. The general deleterious effect of inclusions on fatigue resistance is shown in Fig. 9 for AISI 4340H low alloy steel [ 14 ]. The type of inclusions were described as spherical and were, therefore, most likely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., the endurance limit of the AISI 4340 steel was reduced from 760 MPa (110 ksi) for specimens made from low-stress grinding to 520 MPa (75 ksi) for specimens made from abusive-stress grinding. Hardened surfaces of high-carbon alloy steels containing patches of retained austenite that transform to martensite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fracture rotary-bending fatigue steel ratchet marks beach marks star-shaped fracture pattern SEM/EDX analysis fatigue strength SAE 4340 (nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy steel) UNS G43400 SAE 5046H (low-alloy chromium steel) UNS H50460 Introduction The primary objective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the metallurgical characteristics, and low damage tolerance of the 4340, it is concluded that catastrophic failure of the truck beam on the ground has been caused by stress corrosion cracking. Conclusions The left-hand main landing gear (MLG) truck beam was manufactured from 4340 steel as specified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Results of failure analyses of two aircraft crankshafts are described. These crankshafts were forged from AMS 6414 (similar composition to AISI 4340) vacuum arc remelted steels with sulfur contents of 0.003% (low sulfur) and 0.0005% (ultra-low sulfur). A grain boundary sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... final catastrophic failure has occurred. The stresses required to cause SCC are often times quite minimal, especially in high strength steels which have a considerably low value of K ISCC . Conclusion and Recommendations The failure of the pitch horn belt was attributed to SCC based upon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... in the manufactured part. Microhardness measurements vary from as low as 350 KHN (35 HRC) in the dark areas to as high as 690 KHN (58 HRC) in the light areas. Fig. 19 Overheating of the Steel Caused by Escaping Gases. Discussion Corrosion is the primary cause of breech chamber failures. The problem...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... strongly on the grain boundary surface. It can also appear in the stress-relief cracking of chromium-molybdenum steels ( Ref 5 ). Fig. 3 SEM image of fracture surface of nickel-base alloy (Inconel 751, annealed and aged) after stress rupture (730 °C, or 1350 °F; 380 MPa, or 55 ksi; 125 h). (a) Low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It can also appear in the stress-relief cracking of chromium-molybdenum steels ( Ref 5 ). Fig. 3 Scanning electron microscopy image of fracture surface of nickel-base alloy (Inconel 751, annealed and aged) after stress rupture (730 °C, or 1350 °F; 380 MPa, or 55 ksi; 125 h). (a) Low-magnification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... alloy steel and thus met material specification. The failure was a result of torsional fatigue in the tensile plane, originating from one of several gouges around the splined radius of the shaft. The fatigue crack progressed for a large number of cycles before final fracture. The shaft met metallurgical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... For example, following the catastrophic failure described earlier, the very high strength H11 steel is no longer used by the CF because of its low fracture toughness. Another example is the poor SCC resistance of some Al alloys such as 7079-T6 and 7075-T6 that are common in most CF aircraft. SCC is still...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ), and part diameter ( K d ) for fatigue life of steel parts. See text. Finite-Life Criterion (ε-<italic>N</italic> Curves) Strain life is the general approach employed for continuum response in the safe-life, finite-life regime. It is primarily intended to address the low-cycle fatigue area (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a variety of steels and followed their performance over a period of time. The steels tested included plain carbon and low-alloy steels, and the hardness of each hammer complied with the hardness limits required by BS 876 (520 to 640 HV; 50.5 to 57.5 HRC). Although this type of testing yields useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-type shock-resistant steel, although sometimes a less expensive material can be substituted for the material specified. For example, the same hardness can be achieved in a drastically quenched plain carbon steel, tempered at a low temperature, as in a higher-carbon alloy steel that was tempered...