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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... bolts manufactured using controlled processes. Machine tools Milling cutters 4340 UNS G43400 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement The draw-in bolt and the collet from a vertical-spindle milling machine broke during routine cutting of blind recesses after a relatively long service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The 4340 steel main rotor yoke of a helicopter failed during a hovering exercise. Visual examination of the yoke revealed no evidence of gross external damage. Visual fracture surface examination, macrofractography, scanning electron micrography, and metallography of a section cut from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract One of the two AISI 4340 steel pitch horn bolts from the main rotor hub assembly failed while in service. Optical microscope revealed evidence of corrosion pitting in regions adjacent to the fracture. Fractographic examination utilizing a scanning electron microscope revealed multiple...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A forged, cadmium-plated electroslag remelt (ESR) 4340 steel mixer pivot support of the rotor support assembly located on an Army attack helicopter was found to be broken in two pieces during an inspection. Visual inspection of the failed part revealed significant wear on surfaces that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A 4340 steel piston engine crankshaft in a transport aircraft failed catastrophically during flight. The fracture occurred in the pin radius zone. Fractographic studies established the mode of failure as fatigue under a complex combination of bending and torsional stresses. SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Two vertical coal-pulverizer shafts at a coal-fired generation station failed after four to five years in service. One shaft was completely broken, and the other was unbroken but cracked at both ends. shaft material was AISI type 4340 Ni-Cr- Mo alloy steel, with a uniform hardness of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Results of failure analyses of two aircraft crankshafts are described. These crankshafts were forged from AMS 6414 (similar composition to AISI 4340) vacuum arc remelted steels with sulfur contents of 0.003% (low sulfur) and 0.0005% (ultra-low sulfur). A grain boundary sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the design calculations, thus causing the initiation of the cracking. Moreover, although the shaft had been quenched and tempered, its actual hardness did not have the optimal value for long-term fatigue strength. drive shaft fatigue fracture rotating-bending variable stress 4340 low-alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inclusions steel abnormal wear pattern metallographic analysis microstructure 4340 (nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy steel) UNS G43400 This paper outlines the metallurgical and mechanical failure analysis of a high-speed pinion shaft that was in service aboard a seafaring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... properties than those which deform (i.e., MnS) [ 13 , 15 ]. The main influence of inclusions is on the initiation stage of fatigue [ 13 ]. It is well known that a significant portion of the high cycle fatigue life is spent in initiation [ 16 , 17 ]. In AISI 4340 steel, fatigue cracks were initiated by...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... shafts fracture rotary-bending fatigue steel ratchet marks beach marks star-shaped fracture pattern SEM/EDX analysis fatigue strength SAE 4340 (nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy steel) UNS G43400 SAE 5046H (low-alloy chromium steel) UNS H50460 The primary objective of a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... microscopic fractographs of typical quench cracks in a 4340 steel ( Ref 2 ). These fractographs show the quench crack crescent where the crack is intergranular in nature. Comparable fractographs of the two failed bolts ( Fig. 2 and 3 ) show the same features; the quench crack crescent designated in Zone 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Steel). Hardness of M50 material: 60–66 HRC. Number of balls: 17, ball diameter—0.4688″. Cage material: AMS 6415 (4340 steel), 28–35 HRC, Silver plated per AMS 2412. During the investigation, segments from each bearing component were excised for general material characterization involving...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fractures caused by hydrogen-assisted cracking or stress-corrosion cracking in quenched and tempered steels such as 4340. The apparent grain-boundary surfaces were serrated and stepped, and the valleys, or grooves, that separated the apparent grains in the plane of the fracture showed no signs of fissuring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hardness. Chemical etching is very sensitive to alloy segregation ( Fig. 32 ). Fig. 32 (a) Lighter and darker etching areas of 4340 alloy steel show nonuniform distribution of alloying elements. Nital etch. (b) Chemically etched 304 stainless steel shows wavy alloy segregation. Marble’s etch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... element concentration in a given boundary. This refinement increases the threshold stress intensity in AISI 4340 steel ( Ref 23 ). The addition of some alloying elements may either enhance or diminish the susceptibility of a boundary to hydrogen embrittlement or SCC. For example, manganese added to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... propagation of a crack between widely spaced inclusions within a shear band in a 4340 alloy steel (stress axis is vertical). Source: Ref 41 . (b) Ductile crack growth in high-strength, low-alloy steel (A710). Source: Ref 42 In addition, necking can occur in the ligaments between the particles. With...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2