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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract High-horsepower electric motors were utilized to drive large compressors (made of 4340 steel shafts and gear-type couplings) required in a manufacturing process. The load was transmitted by two keys 180 deg apart. Six of the eight compressor shafts were found cracked in a keyway and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract Overhaul mechanics discovered a crack in an AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni alloy steel pivot bolt when grinding off the chromium plating. The bolt had served for an estimated 10,000 h and was replated when last overhauled. On checking the bolt, several fine cracks were found on the surface. A...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An AISI 4340 threaded steel connecting rod that was part of a connecting linkage used between a parachute and an instrumented drop test assembly fractured under high dynamic loading when the assembly was dropped from an airplane. A large flaw that originated from the root of a machined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... bolts manufactured using controlled processes. Machine tools Milling cutters 4340 UNS G43400 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Selected Reference • Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Military aircraft use a cartridge ignition system for emergency engine starts. Analysis of premature failures of steel (AISI 4340) breech chambers in which the solid propellant cartridges were burned identified corrosion as one problem with an indication that stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Examination of a cracked nose landing gear cylinder made of AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni alloy steel proved that the part started to fail on the inside diam. When the nucleus of the stress-corrosion crack was studied in detail, iron oxide was found on the fracture surface. A 6500x micrograph...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Ground maintenance personnel discovered hydraulic fluid leaking from two small cracks in a main landing gear cylinder made from AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni alloy steel. Failure of the part had initiated on the ID of the cylinder. Numerous cracks were found under the chromium plate. A 6500x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A nose landing gear cylinder made from AISI 4340 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel was found cracked and leaking, causing partial depressurization. Investigation revealed the crack to be a stress-corrosion type, judging by the 6500x electron fractograph. It had started in a region of concentrated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A 4340 steel shaft, the driving member of a large rotor subject to cyclic loading and frequent overloads, broke after three weeks of operation. The driving shaft contained a shear groove at which the shaft should break if a sudden high overload occurred, thus preventing damage to an...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A cadmium-plated 4340 Ni-Cr-Mo steel ballast elbow assembly was submitted for failure analysis to determine the element or radical present in an oxidation product found inside the elbow assembly. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis in the SEM showed that iron was the predominant species...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... approximately 140 mm (5.5 in.) in the unsplined section and was made of 4340 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel heat treated to a uniform hardness of HRC 31. Cracks from at least seven different origins had coalesced to produce the single large crack that resulted in failure. The origins of these cracks were on the flanks of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0046366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract Several large chromium-plated 4340 steel cylinders were removed from service because of deep longitudinal score marks in the plating. One of the damaged cylinders and a mating cast aluminum alloy B850-T5 bearing adapter that also exhibited deep longitudinal score marks were submitted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The 4340 steel main rotor yoke of a helicopter failed during a hovering exercise. Visual examination of the yoke revealed no evidence of gross external damage. Visual fracture surface examination, macrofractography, scanning electron micrography, and metallography of a section cut from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Two vertical coal-pulverizer shafts at a coal-fired generation station failed after four to five years in service. One shaft was completely broken, and the other was unbroken but cracked at both ends. shaft material was AISI type 4340 Ni-Cr- Mo alloy steel, with a uniform hardness of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... wall thickness of 17 mm. The steering knuckle was made of 4340 steel and heat treated to a hardness of about 415 HRB (yield strength of about 1069 MPa, or 155 ksi). The vehicle had been involved in a field accident six months before the steering knuckle failed. Several components, including portions of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Results of failure analyses of two aircraft crankshafts are described. These crankshafts were forged from AMS 6414 (similar composition to AISI 4340) vacuum arc remelted steels with sulfur contents of 0.003% (low sulfur) and 0.0005% (ultra-low sulfur). A grain boundary sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract One of the two AISI 4340 steel pitch horn bolts from the main rotor hub assembly failed while in service. Optical microscope revealed evidence of corrosion pitting in regions adjacent to the fracture. Fractographic examination utilizing a scanning electron microscope revealed multiple...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A forged, cadmium-plated electroslag remelt (ESR) 4340 steel mixer pivot support of the rotor support assembly located on an Army attack helicopter was found to be broken in two pieces during an inspection. Visual inspection of the failed part revealed significant wear on surfaces that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A 4340 steel piston engine crankshaft in a transport aircraft failed catastrophically during flight. The fracture occurred in the pin radius zone. Fractographic studies established the mode of failure as fatigue under a complex combination of bending and torsional stresses. SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A hollow, splined alloy steel aircraft shaft (machined from an AMS 6415 steel forging – approximately the same composition as 4340 steel – then quenched and tempered to a hardness of 44.5 to 49 HRC) cracked in service after more than 10,000 h of flight time. The inner surface of the...