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321 (austenitic wrought stainless steel)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... formation of polythionic acid in the process gas. ring type pipe joint fracture polythionic acid stainless steel transgranular fracture fractography creep strength 347 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S34700 321 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S32100...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... , Vol. 1 , Gunia R.B. , ed., American Society for Metals , Metals Park, OH , 1977 , p. 373 . 4. An Evaluation of the Yield, Tensile, Creep, and Rupture Strengths of Wrought 304, 316, 321, and 347 Stainless Steels at Elevated Temperatures , ASTM Data Series DS-5S2 , ASTM , Philadelphia...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature locally to a level sufficient to austenitize the band, which subsequently transforms to martensite as a result of the quenching action of the colder surroundings. The microstructural evolution of shear bands in annealed (95 HRB) 1060 steel is shown in Fig. 21 ( Ref 5 ). Adiabatic shear bands in...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand molds. It...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... AISI type 321 stainless steel ammonia converter in which the temperature produced by the chemical reaction was 910 °C (1670 °F), the temperature of boiler feedwater in an integral cooling jacket surrounding the converter was 205 °C (400 °F). The water jacket had deaerator tubes at the top to remove any...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of poor operations or improper materials selection, and thus often preventable. heat exchangers drain lines corrosion bacterial growth copper stainless steel pitting perforations microscopy corrosion resistance 304L stainless steel (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S30403...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... necessary chromium to resist aqueous corrosion and high-temperature oxidation phenomenon. When elevated-temperature service in the sensitizing range is anticipated, stabilized or low-carbon grades of stainless steel are specified. The stabilized grades (type 321 or 347) work by adding strong carbide-forming...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with proper design with adequate corrosion allowance, a carbon steel vessel will provide many years of low-maintenance service. For more costly materials, such as austenitic stainless steels and copper and nickel alloys, a maximum corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mils/year) is generally acceptable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... contact with chromium or stainless steels with only slight acceleration of corrosion; chromium and stainless steels are easily polarized cathodically in mild environments, so that the corrosion current is small despite the large differences in the open-circuit potentials between these metals and aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Common metal-environment combinations associated with stress-corrosion cracking Alloy Environment Carbon steel Hot nitrate, hydroxide, and carbonate/bicarbonate solutions High-strength steels Aqueous electrolytes, particularly when containing H 2 S Austenitic stainless steels Hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... precipitation at the hot side of the hot-gas casing of a gas turbine. Material is 321 stainless steel. Etched successively in Vilella's reagent, methanolic aqua regia, and Groesbeck's reagent to darken carbides In quenched and tempered carbon and alloy steel samples, determination of the prior-austenite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-induced LME in a 0.5 wt% carbon steel that occurred when the steel was in contact with liquid copper at 1100 °C (2010 °F). 2% nital etch Figure 49 shows intergranular cracking of 321 austenitic stainless steel. While this looks like intergranular SCC, it is actually LME from liquid zinc that...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... carbon steel for alloy or stainless steel, or vice versa ( Ref 1 ). Table 1 Summary of statistics on pressure vessel failures compiled from 1981 through 1984 by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Initial part failure Causes Type of failures Numbers Low water cut...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Longitudinal fracture may or may not be accompanied by secondary, circumferential fracture. The main fracture usually has a fishmouth appearance ( Fig. 6a ) and is either a thick-lip or a thin-lip rupture. Fig. 6 Type 321 stainless steel (ASME SA-213, grade TP321H) superheater tube that failed by thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... appropriate stress ranges, particularly in metals with multiple active slip planes. For example, well-defined striations are frequently observed at intermediate growth rates in metals such as wrought aluminum and austenitic stainless steel. Examples of fatigue striations are presented in Fig. 32 to 36...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , “Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation in Pearlitic Rail Steels,” Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA , 1976 28. Magnin T. and Lepinoux J. , Metallurgical Aspects of the Brittle S.C.C. in Austenitic Stainless Steels , Parkins Symposium on Fundamental Aspects of Stress Corrosion Cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... most dramatic and well-known example is the brittle failure of several World War II ships, which split in half while still at dockside ( Fig. 1 , Ref 2 ). The fractures originated at weld discontinuities and propagated through carbon-steel plate, which had coarse pearlite formed by furnace cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture” in this Volume. However, Courtney ( Ref 20 ) reported brittle behavior in iridium and rhodium. Additionally, nitrogenated austenitic stainless steels and austenitic stainless steels in stress-corrosion cracking conditions can possibly cleave. Stresses to...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture.” However, Ref 20 does report brittle behavior in iridium and rhodium. Additionally, nitrogenated austenitic stainless steels and austenitic stainless steels in stress-corrosion cracking conditions may possibly cleave. Stresses to cause cleavage in hcp materials vary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 525 (b) 975 (b) 4 1Cr-Mo-Si; SA-213, grade T-11 565 (b) 1050 (b) 4 2Cr-1Mo-Si; SA-213, grade T-22 600 (b) 1110 (b) 4 7Cr-Mo 650 1200 5 9Cr-1Mo-V; SA-213, grade T-91 650 (a) 1200 (a) 4 9Cr-Mo 675 1245 5 Stainless steels 201, 202 845 1555 6...