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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Several AISI type 321 stainless steel welded oil tank assemblies used on helicopter engine systems began to leak in service. One failure, a fracture on the aft side of a spot weld, was submitted for analysis. SEM fractography examination revealed fatigue failure. The failure initiated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Stainless steel liners (AISI type 321) used in bellows-type expansion joints in a duct assembly installed in a low-pressure nitrogen gas system failed in service. The duct assembly consisted of two expansion joints connected by a 32 cm (12 in.) OD pipe of ASTM A106 grade B steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract AISI type 321 stainless steel heat exchanger tubes failed after only three months of service. Macroscopic examination revealed that the leaks were the result of localized pitting attack originating at the water side surfaces of the tubes. Metallographic sections were prepared from both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A type 321 stainless steel bellows expansion joint on a 17-cm (6 in.) OD inlet line (347 stainless) in a gas-turbine test facility cracked during operation. The line carried high-purity nitrogen gas at 1034 kPa (150 psi) with a flow rate of 5.4 to 8.2 kg/s (12 to 18 lb/s). Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A 44.5 mm (1.75 in.) diam type 321 stainless steel seamless tube in a power-generating turbine failed after 19,000 h in service. The tube was used to carry a mixture of approximately 25% steam and 75% hot air. Three fractured pieces and part of the tube containing the mating fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A failure analysis was conducted to determine the cause of recurring failure of flexible bellows in an exhaust hose assembly. The bellows were made of type 321 stainless steel. Visual examination showed that cracks followed a path along the seam weld in the bellows. Most of the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Failure of AISI type 321 stainless steel internal springs from newly manufactured lip seals on a shaft between a turbine power unit and a pump in a commercial aircraft secondary unit was investigated. Examination of the coils from two failed springs showed that both had failed by...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A type 321 stainless steel downcomer expansion joint that handled process gases was found to be leaking approximately 2 to 3 weeks after installation. The expansion joint was the second such coupling placed in the plant after failure of the original bellows. The failed joint was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... austenitic stainless steel tubing (type 321 stainless steel (ASME SA-213, grade TP321H)). The surface temperature of the tube was found to be higher than operating temperature in use earlier. The ferritic steel portion of the tube was found to be longitudinally split and heavily corroded in the region of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., the material being AISI 321 stainless steel. The purpose of the present study was to determine optimum repair welding procedures on the premise that the material was basically sound and undamaged by creep. The cracking was the result of thermal fatigue, and such cracks can propagate at elevated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel; the flange from type 321, and the ring gasket from 347. Examination revealed that the failure occurred by transgranular stress-corrosion cracking, initiated by the presence of polythionic acid. Detailed metallurgical investigation was subsequently conducted to identify what may have caused the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... failure took place was 50.8 mm in diam with a nominal wall thickness of 8 mm. It connected to the AISI 321 superheater tube by means of a butt weld and was one of 46 such parallel connecting tubes. The Cr-Mo tubing was situated outside the heat transfer zone of the superheater. The overall sequence of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract The bolt in a bolt and thimble assembly used to connect a wire rope to a crane hanger bracket was worn excessively. Two worn bolts, one new bolt, and a new thimble were examined. Specifications required the bolts to be made of 4140 steel heat treated to a hardness of 277 to 321 HRB...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Primary temperature was reduced from 328 to 321 °C (621 to 611 °F). The decision to reduce the temperature to 321 °C (611 °F) was also based on minimizing the effect of reduced temperature on generating capacity, while maximizing the benefit in reducing tubing degradation. In addition, reducing the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The wheel was part of a train in a metropolitan railway system and thus was subjected to repeated stops. The wheel was specified to be a wrought, class A (ASTM A504) type. Class A wheels are required to be quenched and tempered to 255 to 321 HB. Wheels of this type are intended for high-speed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface of a metallographic specimen, as described in the section “ Hardness Determination by Microindentation and Nanoindentation Methods ” in this article. Embrittlement can often be observed through the examination of metallographic sections. For example, Fig. 31 shows the microstructure of a 321...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... program was implemented for all three units at the plant. Primary temperature was reduced from 328 to 321 °C (621 to 611 °F). The decision to reduce the temperature to 321 °C (611 °F) was also based on minimizing the effect of reduced temperature on generating capacity, while maximizing the benefit in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... areas of fine cracking were also concluded to be due to zinc LMIE. The zinc was thought to have come from the melting during the fire of the coating on galvanized steel components in the structures above the NPS 8 line. A similar failure was detected in some type 321 stainless steel piping on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (Cadmium melts at 321 °C) [ 18 ] SMIE is much less severe than LME because the ratecontrolling process for SMIE, viz. surface self-diffusion of embrittling atoms from their source to the crack tip, is much slower than the rate-controlling step for LME, viz. capillary flow of liquid metal to the...