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316 (austenitic wrought stainless steel)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... analysis fatigue strength stainless steel (duplex wrought stainless steel) 316 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S31600 Introduction The petrochemical industry is one of the most dynamic segments of the world economy, and its growth in the last years has led to the development of new...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0091622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
.... If redesign was impossible, an alloy more resistant to Cl-SCC, such as a duplex stainless steel or a high-molybdenum (4 to 6%) austenitic stainless steel, should be used. Chlorides Digesters Paper machines CF-8M UNS J92900 Stress-corrosion cracking A CF-8M (cast type 316) neck liner or manway...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A stainless steel screw securing an orthopedic implant fractured and was analyzed to determine the cause. Investigators used optical and scanning electron microscopy to examine the fracture surfaces and the microstructure of the austenitic stainless steel from which the screw was made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... – 10.50 10.50 – 13.00 Molybdenum 0.18 0.16 — — Nitrogen 0.022 0.026 — — (a) Type 304L has a max. carbon of 0.035% with nickel of 8.00 to 12.00%. Type 304H has carbon of 0.04 to 0.10%. Wrought austenitic stainless steels, such as alloys 304L, 304, and 304H, have essentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... perpendicular to the main axis of the component, as shown in Fig. 9 . Generally, a high amount of deformation of the structure will take place before separation. Fig. 9 (a) Shear test of austenitic stainless steel. (b) High amount of deformation. Beginning of separation in 304 stainless steel. Marble’s...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking Alloy Environment Carbon steel Hot nitrate, hydroxide, and carbonate/bicarbonate solutions High-strength steels Aqueous electrolytes, particularly when containing H 2 S Austenitic stainless steels Hot, concentrated chloride solutions; chloride-contaminated steam; hot...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rolled, extruded, or forged products are stressed in the short-transverse direction. In wrought austenitic stainless steels, crack paths are usually transgranular if proper heat treatment has been employed. However, if thermal processing has produced sensitization because of carbide precipitation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. Lower nickel contents in austenitic stainless steels result in a relatively lower stacking fault energy (SFE) compared to more highly alloyed stainless steels such as Type 316. Austenitic stainless steels with low SFE are more susceptible to HE, a feature generally attributed to non-uniform plastic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... aluminum alone normally is not polarized to its pitting potential. In many environments, aluminum can be used in contact with chromium or stainless steels with only slight acceleration of corrosion; chromium and stainless steels are easily polarized cathodically in mild environments, so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Corrosion of aluminum in contact with more cathodic metals is much less severe in solutions of most nonhalide salts, in which aluminum alone normally is not polarized to its pitting potential. In many environments, aluminum can be used in contact with chromium or stainless steels with only slight...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and are biologically well accepted. Currently, clinical trials are being performed with modified austenitic stainless steels and titanium alloys, which may become accepted implant materials in the future. Additional ASTM standards specify cast and forged conditions for stainless steels and other materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) of austenitic stainless steels in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping first began to occur in the late 1960s, shortly after the commercial introduction of this reactor concept. 5 By the mid1970s, the problem was recognized as both significant and generic to the BWR technology, rather than plant-specific. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... attack at a water pipe joint involving dissimilar metals Figure 17 shows a 316 stainless steel tube that had carried cooling water in a heat exchanger. The outside had been in contact with oil entering the heat exchanger at approximately 80 °C (175 °F). Attack took place on the outside, as shown...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-corrosion cracking. Determination of the direction of pitting, that is, from the outer or inner side of a wall or tube, is of importance in determining the origin of the failure and may involve metallographic sectioning. Fig. 17 A stainless steel 316 tube from a heat exchanger Fig. 18...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of carbon steel for alloy or stainless steel, or vice versa ( Ref 1 ). Summary of statistics on pressure vessel failures compiled from 1981 through 1984 by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Table 1 Summary of statistics on pressure vessel failures compiled from 1981 through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperatures, T / T M Rotors and piping for steam turbines Cr-Mo-V steels 825–975 0.45–0.50 Pressure vessels and piping in nuclear reactors 316 stainless steel 650–750 0.35–0.40 Reactor skirts in nuclear reactors 316 stainless steel 850–950 0.45–0.55 Gas turbine blades Nickel-base...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...×. Mottled areas in both specimens are regions where pearlite has decomposed into ferrite and spheroidal carbides. Both etched with 2% nital Austenitic stainless steels can generally exhibit three types of metallurgical instability at elevated temperatures: carbide formation or modification, ferrite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... orthopedic implant devices fracture corrosion inclusions and stress gaps medical materials cracking fretting pitting fractography fracture toughness Ti6Al4V (titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy) UNS R56406 316L stainless steel (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S31603 Introduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is involved. As an example of improper material specification or use, galvanized steel clips were welded to austenitic stainless steel piping. The galvanized (zinc) coating became molten during the welding process, and the liquid zinc attacked the grain boundaries under shrinkage stresses in the stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... materials Typical temperatures, K Homologous temperatures, T / T M Rotors and piping for steam turbines Cr-Mo-V steels 825–975 0.45–0.50 Pressure vessels and piping in nuclear reactors 316 stainless steel 650–750 0.35–0.40 Reactor skirts in nuclear reactors 316 stainless steel...