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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Failure analysis was performed on a fractured impeller from a boiler feed pump of a fossil fuel power plant. The impeller was a 12% Cr martensitic stainless steel casting. The failure occurred near the outside diameter of the shroud in the vicinity of a section change at the shroud...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...–0.50 0.002–0.020 … 930–1170 135–170 1140–1415 165–205 5–17 0.53–3.18 0.021–0.125 … 930–1140 130–165 1105–1380 160–200 11–18 3.2–9.5 0.002–0.020 29–32 725–860 105–125 930–1070 135–155 12–20 3 4 hard 0.05–0.50 0.002–0.020 … 1275–1450 185–210 1415–1790 205...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... O 3 surface oxide he formed, because Cr 2 O 3 can produce volatile CrO 3 . Nevertheless, under such temperatures the degradation process is corrosion rather than oxidation, and Cr 2 O 3 exhibits better behavior against sulfidation problems. The pits found on the three inspected blades were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Fragments of screen bars which as structural elements of a condenser had come into contact with cooling water from the mouth of a river were received. The screen bars were made of stainless austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steel X 5 Cr-Ni-Mo18 10 (Material No. 1.4401). The bars were fractured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract After about a year of uninterrupted service, one of the blow pipes on a blast furnace developed a bulge measuring 300 x 150 x 12 mm. The conical shaped section was removed from the furnace and examined to determine why it failed. The investigation consisted of visual inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... reduction in overall plant performance when the recirculation system is in service. Standard grades of ferritic stainless steels have nominal Cr contents of 12, 17, and 27% corresponding to alloys 405, 430, and 446, respectively ( Fig. 3 ). The carbon (C) content is 0.12% maximum for alloy 430. This steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Chemical analysis of the base metal and corrosion deposits did not detect iron or nickel sulfides, however Replacement of the remaining pipe strings according to a scheduled program was recommended. Because 9% Ni steel was not available, 13% Cr martensitic stainless steel was recommended as a replacement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... current density, for service embrittled and de-embrittled stud. To date only one stud has been subjected to small punch testing. This embrittled stud, FATT = +123°C, data is shown in Figure 12 , together with other CrMoV steel data ( 12 ) and Ni-Cr steel results ( 13 ). From this figure it can be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A heat exchanger failed five years after going into service in an ammonia synthesis plant. Its container, made of Cr-Mo alloy steel (Material No. 1.7362), operated in an environment that did not exceed 400 deg C or 600 atm of hydrogen partial pressure. X-ray examination revealed a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A bull gear from a coal pulverizer at a utility failed by rolling-contact fatigue as the result of continual overloading of the gear and a nonuniform, case-hardened surface of the gear teeth. The gear consisted of an AISI 4140 Cr-Mo steel gear ring that was shrunk fit and pinned onto a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Cr 3−x (Mn,Fe) x O 4 with x ranging from 0.5 to 1.0. It has been suggested ( 11 , 12 ) that the wide composition range of these oxides is due to spallation, which causes the exposure of new surfaces that have become depleted in Cr and progressively richer in Fe and Mn. The micrograph also shows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Two vertical coal-pulverizer shafts at a coal-fired generation station failed after four to five years in service. One shaft was completely broken, and the other was unbroken but cracked at both ends. shaft material was AISI type 4340 Ni-Cr- Mo alloy steel, with a uniform hardness of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... cracking. Based on test data and cost, A217-WC9 cast Cr–Mo steel would be a better alloy for the application. valve body corrosion H2S exposure Cr-Mo steel pitting cracks chemical analysis corrosion resistance A216-WCC (cast carbon steel) UNS J02503 A217-WC9 cast Cr–Mo steel UNS K21590...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Several heavy truck Cr-Mo steel steering arms in service less than three years fractured during stationary or low-speed turning maneuvers that required power-assisted steering. Metallographic examination of the cracked AISI 4135 arms, heat treated to a hardness of 285 to 341 HB...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and mechanical property testing. This provided critical information and revealed that improper coking and decoking had removed the protective oxide layer (Cr 2 O 3 ) that normally prevents coke deposits from forming on exposed surfaces. Without this layer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and mechanical (hardness and tensile properties) analyses of failed shaft specimens were conducted. The examinations showed that the shafts had failed by fatigue. It was recommended that a low-alloy steel (e.g., 3% Ni-Cr) in the hardened and tempered condition and subjected to shot-peening surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A large pressure vessel designed for use in an ammonia plant failed during hydrostatic testing. It was fabricated from ten Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel plates which were rolled and welded to form ten cylindrical shell sections and three forgings of similar composition. The fracture surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... material was found to be a typical Cr-Mo-V steel, and it met the property requirements. No evidence of temper embrittlement was found. The analyses showed that the observed flaws were present in the original forging and attributed them to lack of ingot consolidation. A series of actions, including...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... material are presented in Table 1 . The compositional requirements for A743 grade CA-15 stainless steel (12% Cr) are also listed for comparison. The impeller material met the chemical requirements of the indicated specification. The results of the EDS SQ analysis of the repair weld material are presented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... chrome alloy steel X 20 Cr 13 (material no. 1.402). According to the Iron and Steel specification Sheet 400 this steel should contain 0.17 to 0.22 wt.% C and 12 to 14 wt.% Cr. Chemical analysis of the blades yielded 0.20 wt.% C and 13.3 wt.% Cr. The mechanical properties are given in Table 1 . They...